Taxonomic Changes Since 1960
Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota & Neocallimastigomycota
Joyce E. Longcore, School of Biology & Ecology, University of Maine
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BEGINNING WITH SPARROW'S 1960 MONOGRAPH: Nearly 50 years ago F.K. Sparrow (1960) published a monograph that covered the Chytridiomycota and other aquatic, zoosporic fungi. This comprehensive work brought together the literature on chytrids (excluding the pathogenic genera Synchytrium and Physoderma) published since the first report by Braun in 1856. At this time the zoosporic true fungi were classified in 3 orders (Blastocladiales, Monoblepharidales and Chytridiales) in the Class Phycomycetes, which also included orders of organisms producing motile zoospores with two flagella that we now place in the Straminopila.
THE ERA OF ULTRASTRUCTURE: A new era in the systematics of chytrids began in 1980 when Barr segregated the Order Spizellomycetales, from the Chytridiales on the basis of zoosporic ultrastructure. From the ultrastructural work published in the late 60’s and 70’s Barr concluded that flagellar associated ultrastructure was more conserved and thus more phylogenetically informative than thallus morphology, which had provided the characters for earlier classifications. Barr also suggested that new genera and species should include information on zoosporic ultrastructure.
THE MOLECULAR ERA: The molecular era of chytrid systematics began in 2000 with the publication by James et al. of a phylogeny of the Chytridiomycota based on analysis of the nuclear small subunit of RNA. They found then and in a subsequent study with more molecular markers (James et al. 2006) that the phylogenetic clades found by analysis of DNA sequences supported groups found by comparison of zoospore ultrastructure. Although well-supported clades were found within the Chytridiales, the order was polyphyletic. Acting on this, researchers have described additional orders. Currently (2009) zoospore-producing true fungi are classified primarily in three phyla, with two genera (Olpidium and Rozella) outside of these phyla in molecular analyses.
2009—Phyla, Classes and Orders of Zoosporic Fungi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this bibliography, which is updated from an article published in Mycotaxon (Volume 60, pp. 149-174; 1996), is to provide a listing of pertinent taxonomic literature since 1960. It includes new taxa, new combinations, and suggested synonymies since Sparrow's monograph. New species in certain parasitic genera are not included, namely: Coelomomyces and Physoderma (Blastocladiales) and Synchytrium (Synchytrium clade). Because Harpochytrium (Monoblepharidomycetes) was not included in Sparrow's monograph, I have included references for species described previous to 1960.
CONVENTIONS: Citations contain inclusive pagination for articles rather than only the page on which the description or the taxonomic change occurs. This variance from custom is to facilitate the retrieval of entire articles. Names of new taxa above the level of species are printed entirely in upper case letters. Figures, substrates, and habitats are listed for new species.
IMPORTANT OR FREQUENTLY CITED REFERENCES:
Barr, D.J.S. 1980. An outline for the reclassification of the Chytridiales, and for a new order, the Spizellomycetales. Canadian Journal of Botany 58: 2380—2394.
Barr, D.J.S. 1990. Phylum Chytridiomycota. Pp. 454—466. In: Handbook of Protoctista, Eds. L. Margulis, J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, and D.J. Chapman. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Boston, Massachusetts. (Abbreviation HP)
Batko, A. 1975. Zarys Hydromikologii. Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warsaw, Poland. (Abbreviation ZH)
Index of fungi. 1960—1995 (Vols. 3—6). C.A.B. International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. (Abbreviation IF)
Hibbett, D.S. et al. 2007. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycological Research 111: 509—547.
James, T.Y. et al. 2000. Molecular phylogenetics of the Chytridiomycota supports the utility of ultrastructural data in chytrid systematics. Canadian Journal of Botany. 78: 336—350.
James, T.Y. et al. 2006. Reconstructing the early evoluton of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818—822.
James, T.Y. et al. 2006. A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota). Mycologia 98: 860—871.
Karling, J.S. 1977. Chytridiomycetarum Iconographia. Lubrect & Cramer, Monticello, New York. (Abbreviation CI)
Letcher, P.M. et al. 2005.Ultrastructural and molecular delineation of the Chytridiaceae (Chytridiales). Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 1561—1573.
Letcher, P.M. et al. 2006. Ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic delineation of a new order, the Rhizophydiales (Chytridiomycota). Mycological Research 110: 898—915.
Letcher, P.M. et al. 2008. Rhizophyctidales—a new order in Chtridiomycota. Mycological Research 112: 1031—1048.
Li et al. 1993. The phyogenetic relationships of the anaerobic chytridiomycetous gut fungi (Neocallimasticaceae) and the Chytridiomycota. II. Cladistic analysis of structural data and description of Neocallimasticales ord. nov. Canadian Journal of Botany 71: 393—407.
Mozley-Standridge, S.E. et al. 2009. Cladochytriales, a new order in Chytridiomycota. Mycological Research 113: 498—507.
Simmons, D.R. et al. 2009. Lobulomycetales, a new order in the Chytridiomycota. Mycological Research 113: 450—460.
Sparrow, F.K. 1960. Aquatic Phycomycetes, 2nd rev. ed. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Sparrow, F.K. 1973. Chytridiomycetes, Hyphochytridiomycetes. Pp. 85—110. In: The Fungi. IVB, Eds. G.C. Ainsworth, F.K. Sparrow and A.S. Sussman. Academic Press, New York.
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