On the Relation Between Psychology and Physics
Douglas M. Snyder, Berkeley, California
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 1-18 ISSN 0271-0137
Garrison's recent article provides another analysis of the need for the inclusion of a relativistic theoretical structure for doing psychological work that adopts some notion related to compementarity for integrating distinct relativistic positions. Problems in his historical account of the introduction of this approach are addressed. Issues concerned with interpretation by psychologists, including Garrison, of modern physical theory are also discussed and point toward the unique contribution that psychologists can bring to understanding modern physical theory. The central significance of psychologists' exploration of modern physical theory is addressed through discussing evidence in this theory of an unavoidable link between the observing, thinking person and the physical world.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Douglas M. Snyder, Ph.D., P.O. Box 228, Berkeley, California 94701.
On Mentalism, Privacy, and Behaviorism
Jay Moore, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 19-36 ISSN 0271-0137
The present paper examines three issues from the perspective of Skinner's radical behaviorism: (a) the nature of mentalism, (b) the relation between behaviorism and mentalism, and (c) the nature of behavioristic objections to mentalism. Mentalism is characterized as a particular orientation to the explanation of behavior that entails an appeal to inner causes. Methodological and radical behaviorism are examined with respect to this definition, and methodological behaviorism is held to be mentalistic by virtue of its implicit appeal to mental phenomena in the account of how knowledge is gained from scientific endeavors. Finally, it is noted that the behavioristic objection to mentalism is pragmatic: mentalism interferes with the effective explanation of behavioral events.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Jay Moore, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201.
On Reversal of Temporality of Human Cognition
and Dialectical Self
Suchoon S. Mo, University of Southern Colorado
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 37-46 ISSN 0271-0137
In terms of temporality of logic, the relation between "before" and "after" is an inverse relation, as is the relation between intension and extension. Reversal of temporality of human cognition is accompanied by corresponding reversal between intension and extension. Such reversal is based on lateral reversal of brain hemisphere locus of time information. A similar inverse relation exists between self as subject and self as object. Extreme objectification of self is associated with brain hemisphere lateral reversal of time information, indicating that subject-object reversal is similar in nature to reversal of temporality of cognition. Dialectical nature of self is based on contradiction between self as subject and self as object. Synthesis arising from such contradiction may be regarded as reality of self.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Suchoon S. Mo, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, University of Southern Colorado, Pueblo, Colorado 81001.
Personal Expressiveness: Philosophical and Psychological
Alan S. Waterman, Trenton State College
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 47-74 ISSN 0271-0137
Psychological and philosophical perspectives are employed in an exploration of the reasons particular individuals experience an activity as personally expressive while others may find the same activity neutral or even aversive. The relationships between personal expressiveness and intrinsic motivation, flow, and self-actualization are considered. The construct of personal expressiveness is shown to have its roots in eudaimonistic philosophy. Living in a manner consistent with one's daimon or "true self" gives rise to a cognitive-affective state labeled "eudaimonia" that is distinguishable from hedonic enjoyment. A personally expressive personality pattern is described integrating concepts from diverse theories including (a) a sense of personal identity, (b) self-actualization, (c) an internal locus of control, and (d) principled moral reasoning. A series of empirical investigations is proposed to test the theoretical concepts of personal expressiveness advanced.
Requests for reprints should be addressed to Alan S. Waterman, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Trenton State College, Hillwood Lakes, CN4700, Trenton, New Jersey 08650-4700.
Consciousness in Quantum Physics and The Mind-Body
Amit Goswami, University of Oregon
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 75-96, ISSN 0271-0137
Following the lead of von Neumann and Wigner, Goswami (1989) has developed a paradox-free interpretation of quantum mechanics based on the idealistic notion that consciousness collapes the quantum wave function. This solution of quantum measurement theory sheds a considerable amount of light on the nature of consciousness. Quantum theory is applied to the mind-brain problem and a solution (quantum functionalism) is proposed for the paradox of the causal potency of the conscious mind and of self-reference. Cognitive and neurophysiological data in support of the present theory are also reviewed.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Amit Goswami, Ph.D., Physics Department, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403.
On the Theory and Application of Third Person
Analysis in the Practice of Psychotherapy
Lauren Lawrence, The New School for Social Research
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 97-104 ISSN 0271-0137
This paper critques a new mathod which I have termed third person analysis and gives perspective on its range and application in clinical practice. Third person analysis turns the analysand into a narrator who will speak of herself in the third person. It is believed that the basic analytic principle inherent in narration can be employed in the form of third person analysis with a wide variety of patients. This new form of psychotherapy provides the analysand with the necessary tool of the narrator, an objectivity needed for the construction of her story. The idea of this paper, then, is not to denigrate the values of free association but rather to shed light on a new form of the mechanism. Free association in the third person may allow the narrating analysand a more creative spontaneity wherein a certain leakage of unguarded and heretofore unrealized material may guiltlessly emerge.
Requests for reprint should be sent to Lauren Lawrence, 31 East 72nd Street, New York, New York 10021.
Book Review ª Paradigms in Behavior Therapy:
Present and Promise
Daniel B. Fishman, Frederic Rotgers, and Cyril M. Franks (Editors). New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1988
Reviewed By William O'Donohue, University of Maine
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 105-110 ISSN 0271-0137
[Note: First paragraph, no abstract available.] According to the editors the two purposes of this book were "to articlate the basic assumptions underlying modern behavior therapy within a philosophy-of-science context, and to sample and compare the views of systematically selected, prominent, exemplar behavior therapists with regard to the status of behavior therapy on various dimensions of the concept 'paradigm'" (p. 4). These goals are important for several reasons. First, the explication of the presuppositions of behavior therapy potentially can allow a deeper understanding of behavior therapy. Second, to the extent that criticism is essential to the growth of knowledge, such an explication can expose these buried assumptions to the light of critisim and perhaps aid in the growth of behavior therapy. Third, adopting a Kuhnian perspective is important because Kuhn's views have dominated meta-scientific analyses of psychology (Coleman and Salamon, 1988) and, if examined critically, such an analysis could provide important information regarding the value of the Kuhnian account of science.
Requests for reprints should be sent to William O'Donohue, Ph>D., Department of Psychology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469.
Book Review ª The Adventure of Self Discovery
Stanislav Grof. New York: State University of New York Press, 1988
Reviewed by Anton F. Koote, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 111-114 ISSN 0271-0137
[Note: First paragraph, no abstract available.] Stanislav Grof has devoted his life to the study of the "remarkable healing and transformative potential of nonordinary states of consciousness" (Grof, 1988, p. xi). His early career focused on the effets of psychedelic substances - initally in Prague, Czechoslovakia, and then at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. He became convinced that "psychedelics - if used properly and judiciously under expert guidance - represent extradinary tools for psychiatry and psychology" (pp. xi-xii). As we all know, the social and judicial climate has inhibited the full development of psychedelic research and therapy. Of necessity, researchers interested in the therapeutic effects of altered states of consciousness have turned their attention to other mind expansion techniques-yoga, meditation and hypnosis - as a means of attaining similar states. Grof and his wife Christina have developed their own non pharmacological method, known as Holonomic integration, or holotropic therapy (Greek holos = whole; trepein = moving toward), which combines controlled breathing, music and sound technology, focused body work, and mandala drawing. Grof has found that application of the yogic technique of deliberate, sustained hyperventilation known as "bastrika," particularly when utilized in conjunction with evocative music, allows access to the entire range of states available with psychedelic drugs. Its therapeutic value lies in its activation of the unconscious, which selects the most relevant emotional materials and facilitates their emergence into the consciousness.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Anton F. Koote, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, Florida 32224.
Book Review ª Carl Jung and Christian Spirituality
Robert L. Moore (Editor). New York: Paulist Press, 1988
Reviewed by Victor H. Jones, Indiana State University
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 115-118, ISSN 0271-0137
[Note: First paragraph, no abstract availabe.] Carl Jung and Christian Spirituality comes at a time when Jungian psychology is becoming more and more important, says Robert L. Moore, editor of this collection of essays and author of the introduction. Jung's ideas appeal to many "laypersons and professionals in the mental health field-especially among those disillusioned by the more narrow and simplistic psychlogical theories" (p. vii). Jung's views have great appeal, of course, because they suggest the possibilty that human beings do have a "common humanity" and "common spiritual roots" (p. vii). The need to find these aspects of mental life shared by all is crucial, says Moore, for "no less than the future of the planet is at stake" (p. viii). Moore identified additional reasons for the appeal of Jung's ideas: they may "help us find areas in which we remain in bondage" to shadow forces in our lives; they may help us to transform ourselves and so improve our world; and they may help us achieve individuation of the Self (p. x).
Requests for reprints should be sent to Victor H. Jones, Ph.D., Department of English, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809.
Book Review ª Rat Man
Stuart Schneiderman. New York and London: New York University Press, 1987
Reviewed by Michael Walsh, University of Hartford
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 119-122 ISSN 0271-0137
[Note: First paragragh, no abstract available.] Rat Man, a lucidly Lacanian rereading of Freud's famous case of obsessional neurosis, suggests at one point that an obsessional cannot establish any temporality of his or her, and is obliged to wait for what Lacan called "the hour of the Other" (1977b, p.18). As the authors preface makes clear, something similar is true of Rat Man itself; originally completed in 1977, this terse and instructive book took a full decade to find a publisher. I know nothing of the specific circumstances involved in this delay, but hope that it is not an indication of the current status of Lacan and Lacanians in the English-speaking intellectual world.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Michael Walsh, Department of English, University of Hartford, West Hartford, Connecticut 06117.
Book Review ª The Last Intellectuals
Russell Jacoby. New York: The Noonday Press, 1987
Reviewed by Robert E. Haskell, University of New England
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Winter 1990, Vol. 11, No. 1, Pages 123-126 ISSN 0271-0137
[Note: First paragraph, no abstract available.] For the reader who cares about ideas, and the "intellectual life," The Last Intellectuals is a sobering book. Its basic thesis is that the post-1940s United States generation has produced no intellectuals, and that the last intellectuals belonged to the previous generation. As an academic, my initial reaction to Jacoby's thesis was one of shocked skepticism. The proof of this thesis, however, hangs on his definition of "intellectual." It soon becomes clear that what Jacoby means by the term intellectual is a non-academic who writes for the larger public, who writes on economic and political issues, who raises the consciousness of the public, who engages in cultural criticism around a sense of community - and who is a relatively independent freelancer secondarily publishing in small magazines and pamphlets. Further, not only is the intellectual a person of ideas but a writer of quality prose as well. Once these premises are accepted, Jacoby's thesis unfolds smoothly, if not inexorably.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Robert E. Haskell, Ph.D., Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of New England, Biddeford, Maine 04005.