The Study of Expression Within a Descriptive
Stephan J. Holajter, Calumet College of St Joseph
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 321-346, ISSN 0271-0137
The phenomenon of human bodily expression has yet to be adequately studied even though it is central to a number of practical and interpretive endeavors in social life, in the clinic, and in the arts. A descriptive psychology which is specifically attuned to the physiognomies and expressive movements of the human body needs to be launched. It will highlight the manner in which inner moods and feelings are externalized in the human space of appearances and made available to the reactions and interpretations of both oneself and others, including the way sociality frames these psychological ascriptions. This descriptive psychology - which has a special interest in the study of personality and characterology - can then begin to assume its proper place among several disciplines, serving as a mediator between, e.g., psychiatry and aesthetics, moral philosophy and pastoral counseling, or phenomenological psychology and social work.
Requests for reprints should be addressed to Stephen J. Holajter, Ph.D., 7918 Duluth Street, Highland, Indiana 46322.
Toward a Model of Attention and Cognition, Using
a Parallel Distributed Processing Approach Part 2: The Sweeping Model
Gregory Christ, University of Ottawa
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 347-366, ISSN 0271-0137
This paper outlines a theoretical model of attention and cognition using artificial neural network properties, the Sweeping Model. This model includes a sensory memory, a self modifying neural network (capable of forming associations, and of pattern completion), a system applying synchronous sweeps of lateral inhibition across the neural network, and a subsystem to evaluate the body state of the system to control this sweep frequency. After further description, it will be argued that these components can result in behaviours such as learning anf performing according to primary and secondary reinforcement rules.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Gregory Christ, School of Psychology, 125 University, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5.
Consciousnwss and AI: Reconsideration of Shanon
Tracy B. Henley, Mississippi State University
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 367-370, ISSN 0271-0137
Shanon (1990) provides us with a well reasoned and careful consideration of the nature of consciousness. Shanon argues from this understanding of consciousness that machines could not be conscious. A reconsideration of Shanon's discussion of consciousness is undertaken to determine what it is that computers are missing so as to prevent them from being conscious. The conclusion is that under scrutiny it is hard to establish a priori that machines could not be conscious.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Tracy B. Heneley, Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762.
Consciousness and the Computer: A Reply to Henley
Benny Shanon, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 371-376, ISSN 0271-0137
This paper is a response to Henley who criticizes a previous paper of mine arguing against my claim that computers are devoid of consciousness. While the claim regarding computers and consciousness was not the main theme of my original paper, I do, indeed, subscribe to it. Here, I review the main characteristics of human consciousness presented in the earlier paper and argue that computers cannot exhibit them. Any ascription of these characteristics to computers is superficial and misleading in that it fails to capture essential, intrinsic features of human cognition. More generally, psychological theory couched in terms of semantic representations and the computational operations associated with them is bound to be inadequate. The phenomenology of consciousness is a specific case marking this inadequacy.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Benny Shannon, Ph.D., Department ofPsychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel.
Deconstructing the Chinese Room
Gordon G. Globus, University of California, Irvine
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 377-392, ISSN 0271-0137
The "Chinese Room" controversy between Searle (1990) and Churchland and Churchland (1990) over whether computers can think is subjected to Derridean "deconstruction." There is a hidden complicity underlying the debate which upholds traditional subject/object metaphysics, while deferring to future empirical science an account of the problematic semantic relation between brain syntax and the perceptible world. I show that an empirical solution along the lines hoped for is not scientifically conceivable at present. An alternative account is explored, based on the productivity of neural nets, in which the semantic relation is found to be dynamical - a spontaneous, stochastic, self-organizing process.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Gordon G. Globus, M.D., UCI Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, 101 City Drive, Orange, California 92668.
Mind and Body: An Apparent Perceptual Error
Fred S. Fehr, Arizona State University
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 393-406, ISSN 0271-0137
A process model of concept development is proposed as a means of understanding the mind body problem. This paper (a) reviews some definitions and views of mind, (b) reiterates Karl Popper's description of the development of scientific as compared to essentialist methods of concept definition, (c) compares the development of physical and psychological concepts, (d) notes an apparent illogic of the mind and body issue, and (e) discusses a range of psychological theories in relation to this process model, that is, Skinner's behavior view, to Pribram's presentation of cognitive theory, to Epstein's theory of the self concept, and to existentialistic views. In terms of meaning and usefulness, mind and behavioral concepts appear to evolve in the same manner.
Requests for reprints should be sent to F.S. Fehr, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1104.
Contemporary Models of Consciousness: Part II
Jean E. Burns, Consciousness Research, San Leandro, California
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 407-420, ISSN 0271-0137
Recent models of consciousness are reviewed which explore the relationship of consciousness to physical laws; many of these also explore the relationship of consciousness to biological findings. Issues investigated by these models are discussed, with the issues framed in a general way in order to provide a comparison between the models. In Part II the issues discussed include: (1) Does all of the information content of consciousness correspond to neural coding in the brain? (2) Does consciousness follow the brain passively, or can it act independently? (3) Is independent processing by consciousness compatible with the second law of thermodynamics?
Requests for reprints should be sent to Jean Burns, Ph.D., Consciousness Research, 1525 153rd Avenue, San Leandro, California 94578.
Book Review ª CORRECT GRAMMAR 3.0
Lifetree Software Inc. San Francisco, California.
Reviewed by Charles I. Abramson, SUNY Health Science Center
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 421-422, ISSN 0271-0137
[Note: First paragraph, no abstract available.] Correct Grammar is an easy to use, powerful and inexpensive grammar checker suitable for IBM personal computers and compatibles. It installs in minutes, is readily customized, and is designed to work with all major word processor programs such as WordPerfect, WordStar and Microsoft Works. It will also process ASCII files. I highly recommend Correct Grammar. It is a fine program.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Charles I. Abramson, Ph.D., Department of Biochemistry, Box 8, S.U.N.Y. Health Science Center at Brooklyn, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11203.
Book Review ª EndNote - IBM PC and Compatibles
Niles & Associates, Inc. Berkeley, California.
Reviewed by Charles I. Abramson, SUNY Health Science Center
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 423-424, ISSN 0271-0137
[Note: First paragraph, no abstract available.] EndNote is a reference database and bibliography maker for the IBM and compatibles. It is an extremely useful and versatile program and is a must for anyone who does a large amount of scientific writing. It eliminates the drudgery of typing the same references over and over, whether it be for a grant application, a series of submitted manuscripts, or a resubmission of a manuscript to a journal with a different reference format.
Request for reprints should be sent to Charles I. Abramson, Ph.D., Department of Biochemistry, Box 8, S.U.N.Y. Health Science Center at Brooklyn, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11203.
Book Review ª Consciousness in Contemporary
Edited by Anthony J. Marcels and Edoardo Bisiach. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988
Reviewed by William Farthing, University of Maine
The Journal of Mind and Behavior , Summer 1991, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 425-428, ISSN 0271-0137
[Note: First paragraph, no abstract available.] Consciousness in Contemporary Science (CCS) contains a number of thought-provoking chapters on consciousness and its place in scientific theories of human cognition and behavior. The book grew out of a conference held in April 1985 at the Villa Olmo, on the shore of Lake Como, Italy. It includes an introductory chapter by the editors and sixteen additional chapters by sixteen different authors. The authors include well-known experimemtal psychologists, neuropsychologists, and philosophers. All of the writers seem to be firmly grounded in scientific, materialist viewpoints on the mind-body problem; no fuzzy-headed dualists here.
Requests for reprints should be sent to G. William Farthing, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469.