The Two-Stage Model of
Emotion and the Interpretive Structure of the Mind
Notes on the Unconscious
A Reanalysis of Relational
Disorders Using Wakefield’s Theory of Harmful Dysfunction
The Bounds of Cognition. Reviewed by Justin C. Fisher, Southern Methodist University
Fred Adams and Kenneth Aizawa have long been the loyal opposition in the debate about extended cognition. Contemporary humans regularly use external devices to process information. Many of us store telephone numbers in our cell phones rather than our brains. Alzheimer’s patients use trusted notebooks to store all kinds of information (Clark and Chalmers, 1998). Expert Scrabble players continually reorganize their letters to more quickly see possible words they might play (Kirsh, 1995). Fans of extended cognition have held that the information processing performed partly within such external devices is enough like traditional cases of cognitive processing that it also deserves to be called “cognitive processing.”1 Adams and Aizawa have been two key figures to stand against this tide, arguing that we should instead view these as mere cases of external tool use, and that, at least for the time being, we should reserve the term “cognitive processing” for processes that occur inside creatures’ heads.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Professor Justin C. Fisher, Department of Philosophy, Hyer Hall 207, Southern Methodist University, P.O. Box 750142, Dallas, Texas 75275. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Irreducible Mind: Toward a Psychology for the 21st Century. Reviewed by Andreas Sommer, Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine, University College London
Since the publication of Henri Ellenberger’s monumental The Discovery of the Unconscious (Ellenberger, 1970), academic interest in the work of the British Society for Psychical Research (SPR), the first scientific body to systematically investigate reported psychic (or “psi”) phenomena and altered states of consciousness, has grown slowly but steadily. Historians of science have recognized the importance of the Society’s early work, particularly that of Frederic Myers (1843–1901) and Edmund Gurney (1847–1888), on hypnosis, dissociative identity disorder and other psychological phenomena (Alvarado, 2002; Gauld, 1992; Koutstaal, 1992). Frederic Myers is to be regarded as an important early depth psychologist, and his influence on colleagues like William James, Pierre Janet, and Théodore Flournoy (Crabtree, 1993; Shamdasani, 1994; Taylor, 1983, 1996), and also Carl G. Jung (Shamdasani, 2003), has been documented as significant.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Andreas Sommer,
Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine, University College
London, 183 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, United Kingdom. Email: email@example.com
The Self-Evolving Cosmos:
A Phenomenological Approach to Nature’s Unity-in- Diversity.
Reviewed by Walter Glickman,
Long Island University
When the new Hadron Collider fires protons at each other at near light speeds, the collisions are expected to approach conditions that existed soon after the Big Bang and to give rise to particles never before “observed.” Physicists hope to “see” what some assume to be the basis of dark matter, cutely named sparticles — selectrons, squarks, and so forth. By “finding” still more exotic specks of matter, aptly named “particle physicists” anticipate great breakthroughs in their understanding of matter and cosmogony, and to get closer to unifying the basic forces of nature.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Wally Glickman, Ph.D., Department of Physics, Long Island University, 1 University Plaza, Brooklyn, New York 11201–5372. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org