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Fei Chai

If you need to locate a faculty member with knowledge about particular functions of SMS (e.g., graduate admissions), you can find them on the list of current faculty committees.

Fei Chai

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Fei Chai


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School of Marine Sciences
5706 Aubert Hall 
Orono, ME  04469-5706


Ph.D. in Ocean Science, 1995, Duke University

Research interests

I study how physical and biological processes contribute to the carbon cycle, and how the biological pump transfers carbon into the deep ocean. My current research interests include: developing and testing physical-biological models in several regions, the equatorial Pacific and the coast of Peru, the Gulf of Maine, and the Arabian Sea; studying the nutrient transport from the interior ocean to the surface by the ocean circulation and mixing processes; assimilating satellite information into the physical-biological models, such as sea surfac e temperature and surface ocean color. Much of my work has been interdisciplinary, emphasizing physical and biological oceanography. I am also interested in using the stateof-the-art supercomputing power for the large scale ecosystem models.


In Press

  • Xu, Y., F. Chai, K. A. Rose, and F. P. Chavez (2013): Environmental influences on the interannual variation and spatial distribution of Peruvian anchovy population dynamics from 1991 to 2007: a three-dimensional modeling study. Ecological Modelling, in press.

Additional Publications

  • Xiu, P, F. Chai, L. Shi, H. Xue, Y. Chao (2012): Modeling meso-scale eddy field in the Gulf of Alaska. Deep Sea Research I, 63, 102-117.
  • Palacz, A.P. and F. Chai (2012): Spatial and temporal variability in nutrients and carbon uptake during 2004 and 2005 in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Biogeosciences, 9, 4369-4383.
  • Huff DD, Lindley ST, Wells BK, Chai F (2012) Green Sturgeon Distribution in the Pacific Ocean Estimated from Modeled Oceanographic Features and Migration Behavior. PLoS ONE 7(9): e45852. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045852.
  • Xiu, P. and F. Chai (2012): Spatial and temporal variability in phytoplankton carbon, chlorophyll, and nitrogen in the North Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research VOL. 117, C11023, doi:10.1029/2012JC008067.
  • Nan, F., H. Xue, P. Xiu, F. Chai, , M. Shi, P. Guo (2011): Oceanic eddy formation and propagation southwest of Taiwan. Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 116, doi:10.1029/2011JC007386.
  • Xiu, P. and F. Chai (2011): Modeled biogeochemical responses to mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2010JC006800.
  • Palacz, A., H. Xue, C. Armbrecht, C. Zhang, F. Chai (2011): Seasonal and interannual changes in the surface chlorophyll of the South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116, C09015, doi:10.1029/2011JC007064.
  • Nan, F., H. Xue, F. Chai, L. Shi, M. Shi, P. Guo (2011): Identification of Different Types of Kuroshio Intrusion into the South China Sea. Ocean Dynamics, 61:1291-1304.doi 10.1007/s10236-011-0426-3.
  • [Xiu, P., A. Palacz, F. Chai, E. Roy, and M. Wells (2011): Iron flux induced by Haida eddies in the Gulf of Alaska. Geophys. Res. Lett. VOL 38, L13607, doi:10.1029/2011GL047946.
  • Hong, H. F. Chai, C. Zhang, B. Huang, Y. Jiang, J. Hu (2011): An overview of physical and biogeochemical processes and ecosystem dynamics in the Taiwan Strait. Continental Shelf Research 31 (2011) S3–S12.
  • [Song, J., H. Xue, X. Bao, D. Wu, F. Chai, L. Shi, Z. Yao, Y. Wang, F. Nan, and K. Wan (2011): A spectral mixture model analysis of the Kuroshio variability and the water exchange between the Kuroshio and the East China Sea. Chinese J. of Oceanology and Limnology, 29, 446-459. DOI:10.1007/s00343-011-0114-7.
  • Galindo, H., A. Pfeiffer-Herbert, M.A. McManus, Y. Chao, F. Chai, and S.R. Palumbi (2010): Seascape genetics along a steep cline: using genetic patterns to test predictions of marine larval dispersal. Molecular Ecology 19, 3692-3707. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04694.x.
  • Strutton, P.G., A.P. Palacz, R.C. Dugdale, F. Chai, A. Marchi, A.E. Parker, V. Hogue, F.P. Wilkerson (2010): The impact of equatorial Pacific tropical instability waves on hydrography and nutrients: 2004-2005. Deep Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.08.015
  • Palacz, A., F. Chai, R.C. Dugdale, C.I. Measures (2010): Estimating iron and aluminum removal rates in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean using a box model approach. Deep Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.08.012
  • Liu, G., H. Li, H. Wang, F. Chai (2010): Review on the Ecological Dynamics Studies of Green Tide. Advances in Earth Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, Feb. 2010.
  • Brzezinski, M.A., S.B. Baines, W.M. Balch, C.P. Beucher, F. Chai, R.C. Dugdale, J.W. Krause, M.R. Landry, A. Marchi, C. Measures, D.M. Nelson, A. Parker, A. Poulton, K. Selph, P. Strutton, A. Taylor, B. Twining (2010): Co-limitation of diatoms by iron and silicic acid in the equatorial Pacific. Deep Sea Res. II, 58, 493-511, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.08.005
  • Dugdale, R.C., F. Chai, R. Feely, C. Measures, A. Parker, F. Wilkerson (2010): The regulation of equatorial Pacific new production and pCO2 by silicate-limited diatoms. Deep Sea Res. II, 58, 477-492.
  • Kueh, Mien-Tze, Chung-Hsiung Sui, Kon-Kee, Liu, and Fei Chai (2010): On the Upper Ocean Thermal Structure in a Western North Pacific Ocean Model: Model Evaluation and Sensitivity Study. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., Vol. No. 1, xxxx-xxxx, February 2010. Doi:10.3319/TAO.2009.06.03.01.
  • Liu, G. and F. Chai (2009): Seasonal and interannual variation of physical and biological processes during 1994-2001 in the Sea of Japan/East Sea: a three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical modeling study. Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 78, 265-277.
  • Liu, G. and F. Chai (2009): Seasonal and interannual variability of primary and export production in the South China Sea: A three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model study. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66, 420-431.
  • Chai, F. G. Liu, H. Xue, L. Shi, Y. Chao, C-T Tseng, W-C Chou, and K-K Liu (2009): Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Carbon Cycle in South China Sea: a Three-Dimensional Physical-Biogeochemical Modeling Study. Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 65, pp. 703 to 720.
  • Fujii, M., F. Chai, L. Shi, H. Inoue, and M. Ishii (2009): Seasonal and interannual variability of carbon cycling in western and central tropical-subtropical Pacific: a Physical-Biogeochemical Modeling Study. Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 65, pp. 689-701.
  • Bidigare, R.R., F. Chai, M. R. Landry, R. Lukas, C. Hannides, S. J. Christensen, D.M. Karl, L.Shi and Y. Chao (2009): Subtropical ocean ecosystem structure changes forced by North Pacific climate variations. Journal of Plankton Research, Vol. 31, No. 10, 1131-1139.
  • Zhang, W-Z, H. Hong, S. Shang, X. Yan, F. Chai (2009): Strong southward transport events due to typhoons in the Taiwan Strait. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C11013, doi:10.1029/2009JC005372.
  • Xiu, P., Y. Liu, G. Li, Q. Xu, Z. Rong, X. Yin, F. Chai (2009): Deriving depths of deep chlorophyll maximum and water inherent optical properties: A regional model. Continental Shelf Research, 29, 2270-2279.
  • Xiu, P, F. Chai, L. Shi, H. Xue, Y. Chao (in press): A census of eddy activities in the South China Sea during 1993-2007. Journal of Geophysical Research, in press.
  • Buesseler, K. O., S. C. Doney, D. M. Karl, P. W. Boyd, K. Caldeira, F. Chai, K. H. Coale, H. J. W. de Baar, P. G. Falkowski, K. S. Johnson, R. S. Lampitt, A. F. Michaels, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Smetacek, S. Takeda, A. J. Watson (2008): Ocean Iron Fertilization--Moving Forward in a Sea of Uncertainty. Science, 11 January 2008: Vol. 319, No. 5860, p. 162
. DOI: 10.1126/science.1154305.
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M, M-E Carr, R. T. Barber, M. Scardi, D. Antoine, R. A. Armstrong, I. Asanuma, M. J. Behrenfeld, E.T. Buitenhuis, F. Chai, J. R. Christian, A.M. Ciotti, S. C. Doney, M. Dowell, J. Dunne, B. Gentili, W. Gregg, N. Hoepffner, J. Ishizaka, T. Kameda, I. Lima, J. Marra, F. Mélin, J. Moore, A. Morel, R. T. O’Malley, J. O’Reilly, V. S. Saba, M. Schmeltz, T. J. Smyth, J. Tjiputra, K. Waters, T. K. Westberry, A. Winguth (2008): Assessing the Uncertainties of Model Estimates of Primary Productivity in the Tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Marine Systems, doi:10.1016/j.marsys.2008.05.010.
  • Polovina, J. J., F. Chai, E. A. Howell, D. R. Kobayashi, L. Shi, and Y. Chao (2008): Ecosystem dynamics at a productivity gradient: a study of the lower trophic dynamics around the northern atolls in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Progress in Oceanography, 77, 217-224.
  • Fujii, M. and F. Chai (2007): Modeling carbon and silicon cycling in the equatorial Pacific. Deep Sea Res. II 54, 496-520.
  • Zhang, W.Z., H.S. Hong, S.P. Shang, D.W. Chen, and F. Chai (2007): A two-way nested coupled tide-surge model for the Taiwan Strait. Continental Shelf Research, doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2007.01.018.
  • Dugdale, R.C., F.P. Wilkerson, F. Chai, and R. Feely (2007): Size fractionated nitrogen uptake measurements in the Equatorial Pacific and confirmation of the low Si-HNLC condition. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 21, No. 2, GB2005, 10.1029/2006GB002722.
  • Chai, F., M-S Jiang, Y. Chao, R.C. Dugdale, F. Chavez, and R.T. Barber (2007): Modeling Responses of Diatom Productivity and Biogenic Silica Export to Iron Enrichment in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycle, Vol. 21, GB3S90, doi:10.1029/2006GB002804.
  • Pfeiffer-Hoyt, A. S., M.A. McManus, P.T. Raimondi, Y. Chao, and F. Chai (2007): Dispersal of barnacle larvae along the central California coast: A modeling study. Limnol. Oceanogy.,52(4), 2007, 1559-1569.
  • Fujii, M., E. Boss, and F. Chai (2007): The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study. Biogeosciences 4, 1585-1631.
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M., J. A. Dusenberry, L. A. Anderson, R. Armstrong, F. Chai, J. R. Christian, S. C. Doney, J. Dunne, M. Fujii, R. Hood, D. McGillicuddy, J. K. Moore, M. Schartau, Y. H. Spitz, J. D. Wiggert (2007): Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine biogeochemical models: the role of multiple planktonic groups. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C08001, doi:10.1029/2006JC003852.
  • Alexander, M., A. Capotondi, A. Miller, F. Chai, R. Brodeur, and C. Deser (2008), Decadal variability in the northeast Pacific in a physical-ecosystem model: Role of mixed layer depth and trophic interactions. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, C02017, doi:10.1029/2007JC004359.
  • Jiang, M-S and F. Chai (2006): Physical control on the seasonal cycle of surface pCO2 in the equatorial Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 33, doi:10.1029/2006GL027195.
  • Hood, R.R., E.A. Laws, R.A. Armstrong, N.R. Bates, C.W. Brown, C.A. Carlson, F. Chai, S.C. Doney, P.G. Falkowski, R.A. Feely, M.A. Friedrichs, M.L. Landry, J.K. Moore, D.M. Nelson, T.L. Richardson, B. Salihoglu, M. Schartau, D.A. Toole, J.D. Wiggert (2006): Pelagic functional group modeling: Progress, challenges and prospects. Deep-Sea Res. II, Vol. 53, 459-512.
  • McKinley, G.A., T. Takahashi, E. Buitenhuis, F. Chai, J. R. Christian, S. C. Doney, M.-S. Jiang, C. Le Quere, I. Lima, K. Linday, J.K. Moore, R. Murtugudde, L. Shi, P.Wetzel (2006): North Pacific carbon cycle response to climate variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, C07S06, doi:10.1029/2005JC003173.
  • Fujii, M., Y. Yamanaka, Y. Nojiri, M.J. Kishi, and F. Chai (2007): Comparison of seasonal characteristics in biogeochemistry among the subarctic North Pacific stations described with a NEMURO-based marine ecosystem model. Ecological Modeling, 202 (2007) 52-67. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.02.046
  • Ning, X., F. Chai, and Q. Hao (2006): Hypereutrophication in the Ngau Mei Hoi Bay, Hong Kong. Journal of Coastal Research 22(6), 1565-1572.
  • Miller, A. J., A. J. Gabric, J. R. Moisan, F. Chai, D. J. Neilson, D. W. Pierce, and E. Di Lorenzo (2006): Global Change and Oceanic Primary Productivity: Effects of Ocean-Atmosphere-Biological Feedbacks. In “Global Climate Change and Response of the Carbon Cycle in the Equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and Adjacent Land Masses”, Edited By Hodaka Kawahata and Yoshio Awaya, Elsevier Oceanography Series 73.
  • Fujii, M., N. Yoshie, Y. Yamanaka, and F. Chai (2005): Simulated biogeochemical responses to iron enrichments in three high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. Progress in Oceanography, doi:10/1016/j.pocean.2005.02.017.
  • Fujii, M. and F. Chai (2005): Effects of biogenic silica dissolution on silicon cycling and export production. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 32, doi:10.1029/2004GL022054.
  • Jiang, M-S and F. Chai (2005): Physical and biological controls on the latitudinal asymmetry of surface nutrients and pCO2 in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, C06007, doi:10.1029/2004JC002715.
  • Jiang, M-S and F. Chai (2004): Iron and silicate regulation on new and export production in the equatorial Pacific: A physical-biological model study. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 31, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018598.
  • deYoung, B., M. Heath, F. Werner, F. Chai, B. Megrey, and P. Monfray (2004): Challenges of Modelling Ocean Basin Ecosystems. Science, Vol. 304, 1463-1467.
  • Ning, X., F. Chai, H. Xue, Y. Cai, C. Liu, and J. Shi (2004): Physical-biological oceanographic coupling influencening phytoplankton and primary production in the South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, C10005, doi:10.1029/2004JC002365.
  • Miller, A., F. Chai, S. Chiba, J. Moisan, and D. Neilson (2004): Decadal-Scale Climate and Ecosystem Interactions in the North Pacific Ocean. Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 60, pp. 163-188.
  • Dugdale, R.C., M. Lyle, F.P. Wilkerson, F. Chai, R.T. Barber, T-H Peng, and A.G. Wischmeyer (2004): The Influence of Equatorial Diatom Processes on Si Deposition and Atmospheric CO2 Cycles at Glacial/Interglacial Time Scales. Paleoceanography, Vol. 19, PA3001, doi:10.1029/2003PA000929.
  • Xue, H., F. Chai, N. Pettigrew, M. Shi, J. Xu, and D. Xu (2004): Kuroshio Intrusion and the Circulation in the Northern South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, C02017, doi:10.1029/2002JC001724.
  • Sandweiss, D., K. A. Maasch, F. Chai, C. F. Andrus, and E. J. Reitz (2004): Archaeological Evidence for Multi-decadal Natural Climatic Variability and Ancient Andean Fisheries. Quaternary Research, 61, 330-334.
  • Chu, S., S. Elliott, M. Maltrud, and F. Chai (2004): Southern Ocean Iron Enrichments Simulated in a Global, Eddy Permitting GCM. Environmental Sciences and Environmental Computing (ESEC)" Vol II. Editor: Paolo Zannetti, An electronic book published and distributed by TheEnviroComp Institute (
  • Shang, S.L., C.Y. Zhang, H.S. Hong, F. Chai, and S.P. Shang (2004): Short-term variability of chlorophyll associated with upwelling events in the Taiwan Strait region during southeast monsoon of 1998. Deep Sea Res. II, 51, 1113-1128.
  • carbon uptake during 2004 and 2005 in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean.
  • Chai, F., M. Jiang, R.T. Barber, R.C. Dugdale, and Y. Chao (2003): Interdecadal Variation of the Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front, A Physical-Biological Model Simulation between 1960 and 1990. Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 59, 461-475.
  • Lehodey, P., F. Chai, and J. Hampton (2003): Modelling climate-related variability of tuna populations from a coupled ocean-biogeochemical-populations dynamics model. Fisheries Oceanography, Vol. 12, 45, 483-494.
  • Jiang, M-S, F. Chai, R.T. Barber, R.C. Dugdale, F. Wilkerson, and T-H Peng (2003). A nitrate and silicate budget in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean: A coupled biological-physical model study. Deep Sea Res. II, Vol. 50 (22-26), 2971-2996.
  • Miller, A.J., M.A. Alexander, G.J. Boer, F. Chai, K. Deman, D.J. Erickson, R. Frouin, A.J. Gabric, E.A. Laws, M.R. Lewis, Z. Liu, R. Murtugudde, S. Nakamoto, D.J. Neilson, J.R. Norris, J.C. Ohlmann, R. Perry, N. Schnerider, K. Shell, and A. Timmermann (2003): Potential Feedbacks Between Pacific Ocean Ecosystems and Interdecadal Climate Variations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS), May 2003, 617-633.
  • Chai, F., R. C. Dugdale, T-H Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, and R. T. Barber (2002): One Dimensional Ecosystem Model of the Equatorial Pacific Upwelling System, Part I: Model Development and Silicon and Nitrogen Cycle. Deep-Sea Res. II, Vol. 49, No. 13-14, 2713-2745.
  • Dugdale, R.C., R. T. Barber, F. Chai, T.H. Peng, and F.P. Wilkerson (2002): One Dimensional Ecosystem Model of the Equatorial Pacific Upwelling System, Part II: Sensitivity Analysis and Comparison with JGOFS EqPac Data. Deep-Sea Res. II, Vol. 49, No. 13-14, 2746-2762.
  • Dugdale, R.C., A.G. Wischmeyer, F.K. Wilkerson, R. T. Barber, F. Chai, M. Jiang, and T.H. Peng (2002): Source of meridional asymmetry of nutrients to the equatorial upwelling ecosystem and modeling of the impact on ocean-atmosphere CO2 flux. Deep-Sea Res. II, Vol. 49, No. 13-14, 2713-2532.
  • Xue, H. and F. Chai (2002): Coupled Physical-Biological Model for the Pearl River Estuary: A Phosphate Limited Subtropical Ecosystem. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling. 913-928.
  • Ning, X., Y. Cai, Z. Liu, and F. Chai (2002): Size-fractionated phytoplankton standing stock and primary production in the Bohai Sea during late spring. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 21(3): 423-435.
  • Chai, F., H, Xue, and M. Shi (2001): The study of horizontal transport in the Taiwan Strait. Oceanography in China (13) – South China Sea Circulation Modeling and Observations. H. Xue, F. Chai, and J. Xu (Editors). Page 168-177. China Ocean Press.
  • Xue, H., F. Chai, and J. Xu (Editors) (2001): “Oceanography in China (13) – South China Sea Circulation Modeling and Observations”, a special issue of Acta Oceanologica Sinica. China Ocean Press. Page 1 – 254.
  • Chai, F., H, Xue, and M. Shi (2001): Formation and Distribution of Upwelling and Downwelling in the South China Sea. Oceanography in China (13) - South China Sea Circulation Modeling and Observations. H. Xue, F. Chai, and J. Xu (Editors). Page 117-128. China Ocean Press.
  • Barber, R.T. and F. Chai (2001): Using modeling to design and evaluate transient open ocean iron enrichment for carbon sequestration. Proceedings of the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, DOC/NETL-2001/1144. Session 6B, paper No. 4. Washington, D.C., May 2001.
  • Chai, F., H, Xue, and M. Shi (2001): General Circulation and its seasonal variation in the Northern and Central South China Sea. Oceanography in China (13) – South China Sea Circulation Modeling and Observations. H. Xue, F. Chai, and J. Xu (Editors). Pag 39-56. China Ocean Press.
  • Peng, T-H and F. Chai (2001): Modeling the Carbon Cycle in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. The Conference Proceeding on Marine Environment, the Past, Present and Future. C-T Arthur Chen (editor). 240-255.
  • Xue, H., F. Chai, and N. R. Pettigrew (2000): A model study of the seasonal circulation in the Gulf of Maine: in response to local forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr, Vol. 30, 1111-1135.
  • Thieler, E.R., O. H. Pilkey, Jr., R. S. Young, D. M. Bush, and F. Chai (2000): The Use of Mathematical Models to Predict Beach Behavior for Coastal Engineering: A Critical Review. Journal of Coastal Research, 16(1), 48-70.
  • Xue, H., F. Chai, N. R. Pettigrew, D. Xu, and M. Shi (2000): Upper Ocean Circulation in the Northern South China Sea. Proceedings - Second International Ocean and Atmosphere Conference COAA 2000, 73-78.
  • Thieler, E.R., O. H. Pilkey, Jr., R. S. Young, D. M. Bush, and F. Chai (2002): Reply to Dubois, R.N., 2000: Discussion of Thieler et al. (2000): The Use of Mathematical Models to Predict Beach Behavior for Coastal Engineering: A Critical Review. Journal of Coastal Research, 18(1), 194-195.
  • Chai, F., S.T. Lindley, J. R. Toggweiler, and R.T. Barber (1999): Testing the importance of iron and grazing in the maintenance of the high nitrate condition in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, a physical-biological model study. In: The Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle. R.B. Hanson, H.W. Ducklow, & J.G. Field (Editors). International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Book Series 5. Pp. 156-186. Cambridge University Press.
  • Chai, F. and H. Xue (1999): The Response of the Equatorial Pacific Western Pacific to a Westerly Wind Burst. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 18(4), 69-78.
  • Peng, T-H and F. Chai (1999): Modeling the carbon cycle in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium "CO2 In The Ocean", Tsubuka, Japan, January 1999, CGER-1037-'99, Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Agency of Japan, p.183-189.
  • Busseler, K.O., L. Ball, J.A. Andrews, C. Benitez-Nelson, R. Belastock, F. Chai, and Y. Chao (1999): Upper ocean export of particulate organic carbon in the Arabian Sea derived from Thorium-234. Deep-Sea Res. II, Vol. 45, No. 10-11, 2405-2432.
  • Ning, X., Z. Liu, Y. Cai, M. Fang, and F. Chai (1998): Physicobiological oceanographic remote sensing of the East China Sea: Satellite and in situ observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 103, No. C10, 21,623-21,635.
  • Landry, M R., R.T. Barber, R.R. Bidigare, F. Chai, K.H. Coale, H.G. Dam, M.R. Lewis, S.T. Lindley, J.J. McCarthy, M.R. Roman, D.K. Stoecker, P.G. Verity, J.R. White (1997): Iron and Grazing Constraints on Primary Production in the Central Equatorial Pacific: An EQPAC Synthesis. Limnol. Oceanogy, Vol. 42, No.3, 405-418.
  • Chai, F., R.T. Barber, and S.T. Lindley (1996): Origin and maintenance of high nutrient condition in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II, Vol. 42, No. 4-6, 1031-1064.
  • Barber, R.T., S.T. Lindley, M. Sanderson, F. Chai, J. Newton, C.C. Trees, D.G. Foley, and F. Chavez (1996): Primary production in the equatorial Pacific during 1992. Deep-Sea Res. II, Vol. 42, No. 4-6, 933-969.
  • Chai, F. (1995): Origin and Maintenance of High Nutrient Condition in the Equatorial Pacific, A Biological-Physical Model Study. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, pp170.
  • Busseler, K.O., J.A. Andrews, M.C. Hartman, R. Belastock, and F. Chai (1995): Regional estimates of the export flux of particulate organic carbon derived from Thorium-234 during the JGOFS EqPac program. Deep-Sea Res. II, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, 777-804.
  • Barber, R.T., F. Chai, S.T. Lindley, and R.R. Bidigare (1995): Regulation of equatorial primary production. In: Global Fluxes of Carbon and Related Substances in the Coastal Sea-Ocean-Atmosphere System, I. Koike (ed.). Science Council of Japan, 283-290.

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