New Book: Wood Deterioration and Preservation: Advances in Our Changing World. Winter 2003. B. Goodell, D. Nicholas, and T. Schultz. American Chemical Society Series. Oxford University Press.
The Importance of Wood Deterioration Processes in Natural and Man-made Environments:
Wood decay fungi destroy approximately 10% of the wood products harvested from our forests each year. If we did not have these fungi though, woody debris would pile up on the forest floor, choking out other life. So although they cause significant problems for humankind with both economic loss and personal hazard, their presence is essential in the ecosystem. In our labs we study both how to control the activity of wood degrading fungi as well as how to promote growth of certain types of fungi. The former is important because better methods of wood protection are needed to replace the arsenical -based preservative systems that have recently been banned in the US and in other countries and studying how to control fungal growth may provide alternatives for wood protection. Conversely, promotion of the growth of wood degrading fungi is important because decay fungi are able to convert wood and other lignocellulose materials to useful products in biotechnological applications, and in addition, they are uniquely capable of degrade some of the recalcitrant pollutants found in our environment. They can therefore be used as bioremediation agents.
Wood Decay Mechanisms: Metal Chelators and Oxygen Radicals in relation to Wood Degradation Mechanisms.
In our lab we study the mechanisms of wood decay by fungi. We are starting to understand that enzymes are not the only metabolites produced by fungi that function to degrade the chemical components of wood: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Instead, newly discovered, low-molecular weight compounds that bind metals have been found in some types of fungi, particularly the brown rots. These compounds, chelators or catecholate chelators, are much smaller than enzymes and can readily penetrate into the wood cell wall where they appear to act in a catalytic manner to generate free radicals that attack the cellular components of wood. At present though, we do not completely understand how these compounds chemically cycle to produce the free radical oxygen compounds, so additional work is underway to better understand this mechanism. This work is conducted together with Professor Jody Jellison
Bioremediation of Organic Pollutants and Contaminant Metals:
Adapting the mechanism of free radical production from the fungi, we have been able to break down organic pollutants as varied as pentachlorophenol and textile dyes in wastewater (See patents and publications below). Because the free radicals produced are the most powerful oxidant known in biological systems they have proven effective, not just in degrading wood, but also in destroying pollutants that might commonly be found in waste water and in our soils. In addition, because the fungi produce compounds that chelate metals, these compound have potential use at metal-contaminated sites because they can pull out contaminant metals from soils and concentrate them within wood blocks (which can later be removed for disposal). Further work in this area is also needed.
See my other site http://inferno.asap.um.maine.edu/faculty/goodell/index.html for information about on-going research in Advanced Engineered Wood Composites.
- *B. Goodell, D. Nicholas, and T. Schultz. Winter 2003.Wood Deterioration and Preservation: Advances in Our Changing World.. American Chemical Society Series. Oxford University Press. Textbook.
- Christopher C. Felix. 2002. The effect of low molecular weight chelators on iron chelation and free radical generation as studied by ESR measurement. Chemosphere 48 (2002) 21–28 (This paper can also be viewed at: www.elsevier.com/locate/chemosphere.)
- *Goodell, B., Y. Qian, J. Jellison, M. Richard and W. Qi. 2002. Lignocellulose oxidation by low molecular weight metal-binding compounds isolated from wood degrading fungi: A comparison of brown rot and white rot systems and the potential application of chelator-mediated Fenton reactions. (Eds.) L. Viikari and R. Lantto. Progress in Biotechnology Vol 21. Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Elsevier Press. 334 pp.
- Jellison, J, S. Kelley, B. Goodell, D. Hui and A. Ostrofsky. 2002. Differences in pH, electrical resistance, cation composition and NIR spectra of red spruce wood during early stages of brown rot degradation. IRG/WP 02-10449. 11 pp.
- *Kelley, S., J. Jellison and B. Goodell. 2002. Use of NIR and MBMS coupled with multivariate analysis for detecting the chemical changes associated with brown rot biodegradation of spruce wood. FEMS (Federation of European Microbiology Society) Microbiology Letters 209:107-111.
- *Filley, T. R., G. D. Cody , B. Goodell, J. Jellison, C. Noser and A. Ostrofsky. 2002. Microbial production of phenolic-rich lignin residues in coarse woody debris: A laboratory degradation of red spruce wood by two common brown rot fungi. Organic Geochemistry. Vol. 33 (2). pp. 111-124.
- *Cihat Tascioglu, Barry Goodell, Roberto Lopez-Anido Michael Peterson, William Halteman, and Jody Jellison. 2002. Monitoring Fungal Degradation of E-Glass / Phenolic Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites used in Wood Reinforcement. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. Accepted, in press.
- *Goodell, B. 2001. Wood products: Deterioration by insects and marine organisms. (Ed.) F. Beal. Encyclopedia entry for Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology. Elsevier Science Ltd.. 6 pp.
- Anon. 2001. Techtalk: Researchers Develop Radical Dye-removal Method. Industrial Wastewater (WEF) Journal March/April. 1 pp. (Article on our Patented research).
- Gardner, D., B. Goodell, R. Lopez-Anido, and K. Eckelbarger. 2001. Creosote for coastal timbers? Bangor Daily News – Opinion. Bangor, Maine, USA. February 16, 2001.
- *Xu, G. and B. Goodell. 2001. Mechanisms of wood degradation by brown-rot fungi: Chelator-mediated cellulose degradation and binding of iron by cellulose. Journal of Biotechnology. 87:43-57.
- *Jellison, J., B. Goodell, J. Connolly, and A. Ostrofsky. 2000. Wood decay. in The Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. Eds. O. C. Maloy and T.D. Murray. Invited submission.
- *Jellison, J., B. Goodell, J. Connolly, and A. Ostrofsky. 2000. Wood decay. in The Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. Eds. O. C. Maloy and T.D. Murray. Invited submission. pp.1201 -1204.
- Licking, E. 2000. Polluter: Cleanup Ahead? Business Week Magazine. Nov. 6, 2000. P. 165. (Article written by Business Week Magazine editor based on our research.)
- Qian, Y., and B. Goodell. 2000. The Effect of Low Molecular Weight Chelators on Iron Chelation and Free Radical Generation as Studied by ESR Measurement. IRG/WP 00-10367.
- *Paszczynski, A., R. Crawford, D. Funk, and B. Goodell. 1999. De Novo synthesis of 1,5-dimethoxy catechol by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum.. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65(2) 674-679.
- *Goodell, B., and J. Jellison 1998. Role of biological metal chelators in wood biodeterioration. (Eds.) A. Bruce and J. Palfreyman. Forest Products Biotechnology. Taylor and Francis Publishers. London. Invited Book Chapter. pp. 235-250..
- *Goodell, B., K. Yamamoto, J. Jellison, M. Nakamura, T Fujii, K. Takabe, and N. Hayashi. 1998. Laccase immunolabelling and microanalytical analysis of wood degraded by Lentinus edodes. Holzforschung. . 50: 345-350.
- *Goodell, B., G. Daniel, J. Liu, L. Mott, and R. Frank. 1997. Decay resistance and microscopic analysis of wood-cement composites. Forest Products Journal. 47: 11/12: 75-80.
- Goodell, B. and J. Jellison. 1997. Wood Degradation Mechanisms by the Brown Rot Fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. International Research Group on Wood Preservation IRG Secretariat, Box 5607 S-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden. 12p
- *Goodell, B., J. Jellison, G. Daniel, and Q. Yuhui. 1997. Redox cycling chelators isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum. and their effect on wood fibers. TAPPI (Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industries). Proceedings. TAPPI Biological Sciences Symposium and Pulping Symposium. October, 1997 9 p. Goodell also chairs the session on 'Lignin degradation by enzymes and mediators'.
- Jun, and G. Xu. 1997. Low molecular weight chelators and phenolic compounds isolated from wood decay fungi and their role in the fungal biodegradation of wood. Invited paper for Special Issue on Pulp and Paper Biotechnology. Journal of Biotechnology 53(2,3):133-162.
- *Jellison J, Connolly J H, Goodell B, Doyle B, Illman B, Fekete F, Ostrofsky A (1997). The role of cations in the biodegradation of wood by the brown rot fungi. Int Biodegrad Biodet 39:165-179.
- *Goodell, B, J. Liu, J. Jellison, L. Jun, A. Paszczynski, and F. Fekete. 1996. Chelation activity and hydroxyl radical production mediated by low molecular weight compounds phenolate isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum. (Eds.) E. Srebotnik and K. Messner. Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry. TAPPI Sixth Intrnl. Conf. on Biotech in Pulp and Paper. Facultas-Universitätsverlag, Berggasse 5, A-1090 Wien, Austria. 661 pp.
- Lu, J., B. Goodell, J. Liu, A. Enoki, J. Jellison, and F. Fekete. 1994. The role of oxygen and oxygen radicals in one-electron oxidation reactions mediated by low-molecular weight compounds isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum. The International Research Group 14pp.
- Kim, Y. S., B. Goodell, and J. Jellison. 1993. Immunogold labelling of extracellular metabolites from the white-rot fungusTrametes versicolor. Holzforschung. 47(1993) 25-28.
- *Kim, Y.S., H.J. Bae, B. Goodell, and J. Jellison. 1992. Immuno-TEM observations of extracellular metabolites from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. (Eds) M. Kuwahara, and M. Shimada. Biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry. Kyoto, Japan. UNI pub
- *Grace, J.K., B. Goodell, W.E. Jones, V. Chandhoke, and J. Jellison. 1992. Evidence for inhibition of termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) feeding by extracellular metabolites of a wood decay fungus. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 31(249-252).
- Grace, J. Kenneth, B.S. Goodell, W.E. Jones, V. Chandhoke, and J. Jellison. 1992. Inhibition of termite feeding by fungal siderophores. Presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting, Harrogate, U.K., 10-15 May 1992. IRG Secretariat, Box 5607, S-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden. 4pp.
- *Kim, Y. S., J. Jellison, B. Goodell, V. Tracy, and V. Chandhoke. 1991. The use of ELISA for the Detection of White- and Brown-Rot Fungi. Holzforschung, Vol. 45(6):403- 406.
- *Chandhoke, V., B. Goodell, J. Jellison, and F. Fekete. 1991. Oxidation of 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid (KTBA) by iron-binding compounds produced by the wood-decaying fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. Federation of European Microbiology (FEMS) 90:263-266.
- *Kim, Y.S., B. Goodell, and J. Jellison. 1991. Immuno-electron microscopic localization of extracellular metabolites in spruce wood decayed by brown-rot fungus Postia placenta. International Res. Group Document. Holzforschung, 45:389-393.
- *Daniel, G., J. Jellison, B. Goodell, A. Paszczynski, and R. Crawford. 1991. Use of monoclonal antibodies to detect Mn(II)-peroxidase in birch wood degraded by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Applied Micro. and Biotech. 35:674-680.
- *Jellison, J., V. Chandhoke, B. Goodell and F. Fekete. 1991. The isolation and immunology of iron-binding compounds produced by Gloeophyllum trabeum. Appl. Micro. and Biotech. 35:805-809.
- *Kim, Y.S., B. Goodell, and J. Jellison. 1991. Immuno-electron microscopic localization of extracellular metabolites in spruce wood decayed by brown-rot fungus Postia placenta. Holzforschung. 45:389-393.
- Jellison, J., V. Chandhoke, B. Goodell, F. Fekete, N. Hayashi, M. Ishihara, K. Yamamoto. 1991. The action of siderophores isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum on the structure and crystallinity of cellulose compounds. International Research Group Document 1479. IRG Secretariat, Box 5607, S-114 86, Stockholm, Sweden, 16 pp. Invited Keynote Presentation.
- Jellison, J., V. Chandhoke, B. Goodell, and F. Fekete. 1990. Biological chelators produced by wood decay fungi. Proceedings of the 8th International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation Symposium, Windsor, Canada, Aug. 26-31, 4 pp.
- *Goodell, B. and J. Jellison. 1990. Immunological characterization of fungal enzymes and biological chelators involved in lignocellulose degradation. Book chapter. Biodeterioration Research 3. 361-375. Plenum Publishing.
- Jellison, J., B. Goodell, F. Fekete and V. Chandhoke. 1990. Fungal siderophores and their role in wood biodeterioration. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation. IRG Secretariat, Box 5607, S-115 86, Stockholm, Sweden. Twenty-first Annual Meeting, Rotorua, New Zealand, 12 pp.
- Kim, Y.S., B. Goodell, and J. Jellison. 1990. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of extracellular metabolites in spruce wood decayed by brown-rot fungus Postia placenta. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation. Twenty-first Annual Meeting, Rotorua, New Zealand. IRG Secretariat, Box 5607, S-114 86, Stockholm, Sweden, 10 pp.
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