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Celebrating 50 Years

The Darling Marine Center, located on the edge of the Damariscotta River estuary, is celebrating its 50th anniversary.

The center was opened in 1965 after Ira C. Darling, a retired Chicago insurance executive, donated 127 acres of farmland to the University of Maine with the purpose of establishing a marine laboratory.

Today, 50 people occupy the center year-round, including faculty, staff and students. The center invites alumni and members of the community to celebrate its half-century birthday with events, tours and seminars.

To kick off the celebrations, the center will host “Wednesday Walking Tours” which will run for the months of July and August at 10:30 a.m. at the DMC. Staff will give a walking tour of their waterfront laboratories and speak about current research projects focusing on lobster ecology and fisheries management, shellfish aquaculture, remote sensing, coastal food webs and ocean acidification. The tour is open to the public and will last approximately 90 minutes.

Four talks will follow as part of the “Science on Tap Seminar” series, which will take place from 6–7 p.m. at the Newcastle Publick House.

The following describes the focus of each talk:

Additional events include an Alumni Day on Thursday, Aug. 6 which will feature a Damariscotta River cruise, lobster bake and campfire entertainment. The following day, the center will host a UMaine Celebration Day. These two events are by invitation only and participants should register by July 24 at dmc.umaine.edu.

The final event — Darling Marine Center Open House — will consist of activities for all ages and will take place from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Aug. 8. Staff will lead participants throughout the facilities to meet the plants and animals that share Maine’s shores and learn the tools and techniques used in the field of marine science.

Contact: Amanda Clark, 207.581.3721

Just Add Water

Detecting invasive lake and river species using just a water sample would be a dream come true for wildlife managers and regulators in the state. And University of Maine researchers may soon make this an inexpensive reality.

Michael Kinnison, professor of evolutionary applications at the University of Maine, realized the need for an early invasive species detection system that would be more sensitive, require less specialized training and labor by field staff, present little to no threat to non-targeted species, and could be implemented at a fraction of the cost of current detection approaches.

The method now typically used for detecting the presence of invasive species is word of mouth from anglers and other concerned members of the public, followed by many hours of netting, angling and electrofishing by state biologists, says Kinnison.

Many times, reports go unverified until fish are abundant enough to be regularly caught. Current methods also are unlikely to detect the presence of invasive juveniles before they are large enough to be caught by anglers and biologists.

Kinnison is leading a project to adapt emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) approaches to detect the presence of invasive species, and other aquatic species, in Maine waters. Environmental DNA detection targets species-specific DNA material shed by aquatic organisms when they die, defecate or shed skin cells. That DNA can last up to several weeks in surrounding waters and be detected in water samples.

The pilot portion of this project, funded by the Maine Outdoor Heritage Fund, includes use of water samples to describe the extent of invasive northern pike, Esox lucius, in the Penobscot River system.

“This technology has the potential to greatly enhance detection of many aquatic species by providing a much more sensitive and cost-effective approach than current field survey approaches,” he says.

According to the Maine Inland Fisheries & Wildlife Department, Northern Pike was illegally introduced into the Belgrade Chain of Lakes in the 1970s.  Today, they are present in at least 16 lakes in the Kennebec, Androscoggin, and coastal river drainages and are suspected in several other locations. Managers have traced the introduction of species such as pike from illegal transport or by out-migration from lakes where they have become established. Because pike are top predators, their introduction negatively impacts the state’s prized salmon populations.

Kinnison and ecology and environmental science graduate student Lauren Turinetti refined a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set, and fluorescent DNA binding probe, to detect a short but unique sequence of the northern pike DNA. The PCR amplification system turns a few original copies of pike DNA in a water sample into billions, and the fluorescent probe signals how many copies are made. Using this technique they have successfully detected pike DNA in water samples collected from Pushaw Lake in Penobscot County, Maine. The water samples they used were no bigger than a normal soda bottle (1 liter). They’re now working to refine their field sampling and detection approaches to implement a wider-scale survey for pike in the Penobscot drainage.

By collecting water samples throughout the drainage the investigators hope to obtain a snapshot of how far pike have spread in places where dam removals, passage projects and repairs have improved migration of anadromous species — but also may have inadvertently opened the door to pike, says Kinnison.

Further funding by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service State Wildlife Grants Program via the Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife will allow Kinnison to expand this technique to other species of special concern, including imperiled native species.

This relatively quick and inexpensive method could help Maine combat its invasive species crisis and help managers more efficiently apply their limited resources to a diversity of conservation challenges, saving valuable resources for management of invasions from the start rather than detecting them when they’re already established.

The most widely referenced paper (Pimental et al. 2005) on this issue reports that invasive species costs the United States more than $120 billion in damages every year, according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife service.  Invasive species are also a leading cause contributing to the demise of many threatened or endangered species.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has adopted eDNA early detection as a core component of its invasive Asian carp monitoring program in the Great Lakes region. In 2010 alone, the federal government spent $78.5 million to prevent the introduction of carp to the Great Lakes, where they would threaten Great Lakes fisheries and endangered aquatic species.

In the future, the researchers hope to fine tune the method so it will not only determine the presence of multiple species, but also abundance.

“Right now we are using quantitative PCR to detect single species, but with the developments that are occurring, we are probably not that far down the road from being able to detect and estimate the abundance of numerous species within the same water samples,” says Kinnison.

Contact: Amanda Clark, 207.581.3721

Not All Plastics Equal

Ever buy a fish at a pet store that died within days of being put in an aquarium at home?

The plastic bag in which the fish traveled home may be the culprit, according to research by University of Maine marine scientist Heather Hamlin.

Hamlin and colleagues discovered that certain plastic bags with FDA food-grade approval leach nonylphenol (NP) in concentrations that are highly toxic to fish.

The chemical NP — also found in food packaging, cosmetics and laundry and dish detergents — binds to estrogen receptors. Even at low concentrations, it mimics estrogen, which feminizes and alters fertility in fish, thus threatening their existence.

NP also has been found to alter fish immune function and damage DNA.

Hamlin’s findings, published in the journal Chemosphere, demonstrate that NP may pose a greater health risk to people, the ocean and to aquatic wildlife than can be predicted from examining properties of plastic from one manufacturer, which is the method the FDA currently uses to test for toxicity.

“This study contributes to the growing body of research highlighting concerns with plastic contaminants,” says Hamlin, an assistant professor of aquaculture and marine biology.

“While not all plastic is bad, this study highlights difficulties in differentiating good from bad plastic, and it makes sense to reduce the use of plastics if alternatives, such as glass, are available.”

For the study, for 48 hours, captive-bred orchid dottybacks (Pseudochromis fridmani) were kept in synthetic seawater in Teflon bags, glass bowls or in plastic bags from one of two manufacturers. The FDA labels both types of plastic bags as food-safe polyethylene.

All of the fish in Teflon bags and glass bowls lived for the 48 hours, while 89 percent of the fish in one manufacturer’s plastic bags survived, says Hamlin, a reproductive endocrinologist interested in mechanisms by which environmental factors influence aquatic animal reproduction and development.

In the other manufacturer’s plastic bags (PE2), 60 percent of the fish died within the two days. Those that survived 48 hours in the plastic bags all died within eight days of being released in an aquarium. This, says Hamlin, demonstrates the exposure to NP caused irreversible damage to the fish.

In 48 hours, the NP concentration in the seawater in the PE2 bags was 163 parts per billion (ppb), which is nearly 24 times higher than the U.S. EPA water quality criteria for acute exposure of NP in seawater.

While this study tested for the ability of NP to leach into seawater, Hamlin says it’s possible that food stored in the PE2 plastic bags could absorb increased levels of NP as well and that it’s likely that risks to aquatic animals exposed to increasing quantities of plastic waste could be greater than previously realized.

In 2010, industry demand for NP was estimated to be more than 170,000 metric tons; another study estimated as many as 12.7 million metric tons of plastic waste entered the ocean in 2010.

NPs, says Hamlin, enter aquatic systems though a number of ways, including wastewater discharge.

Studies have indicated NP can last for decades in estuary mudflats. And one survey of 93 organic wastewater contaminants in 139 streams in the United States revealed NP was one of the most commonly occurring contaminants and measured at higher concentrations than other contaminants.

Taking all of this into consideration, Hamlin says greater oversight on the manufacture of plastics and allowable thresholds of contaminant leaching is warranted.

Kathleen Marciano, who earned her degree in marine science with a concentration in aquaculture in 2014 from UMaine; and Craig Downs of Haereticus Environmental Laboratory in Virginia, helped lead the study.

Support for the project came, in part, from a Hatch Grant from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture as well as from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Small Business Innovation Research.

Hamlin talks about her research in this video.

Photo courtesy of Sea & Reef Aquaculture

Contact: Beth Staples, 207.581.3777

Camp Combines Environmental Science, Traditional Native Culture

Weaving baskets while learning about brown ash identification and habitat is one of the hands-on projects at the Wabanaki Youth Science Program (WaYS) wskitkamikww, or Earth, summer camp June 22–26, at Cobscook Community Learning Center in Trescott.

At the third annual WaYS summer camp, Native American youth in grades 9–12 also will use compasses and forest tools, learn about medicinal and edible saltwater plants, tidal ecology and climate change issues as they relate to fish.

“It’s great fun. It’s intense,” says Wabanaki Center program manager tish carr, who earned a Master of Forestry degree at the University of Maine.

WaYS, a long-term, multi-pronged program coordinated by the Wabanaki Center at the UMaine, integrates environmental science and traditional Native culture.

WaYs, says carr, seeks to connect the next generation of Native youth with their cultural heritage and legacy of environmental management and stewardship.

In addition to summer camps, seasonal mini-camps are open to junior and senior high school-age students. Each mini-camp focuses on one activity; topics have included shelter building, maple tree tapping, snowshoeing and fishing.

Internships also are available for Native high school-age boys and girls to work with area natural resource experts, including those from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), as well as cultural resource professionals.

And, Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) programs are offered to Native students year-round to continue the long-term connection.

The various approaches and offerings are intended to develop a model education program that promotes Native American persistence and participation in sciences from junior high through college and when choosing a career.

The WaYS program is the brainchild of John Banks, director of the Department of Natural Resources for Penobscot Nation; Darren Ranco, UMaine associate professor of anthropology and chair of Native American Programs; as well as members from each of Maine’s Wabanaki Tribal Nations.

For three days at summer camp, water will be the broad topic for activities for the 25 participants. One day will be devoted to wildlife topics and another day will be dedicated to forestry.

Forestry activities, says carr, will utilize compasses and GPS units and include data collection, tree identification and possibly “forest forensics.”

Food at camp will be Native-based. “We’ll concentrate on a healthy lifestyle and talk about where food comes from,” says carr, adding that as many as four interns will assist educators during the week.

Barry Dana, WaYs cultural knowledge keeper, a Penobscot community elder and former tribal chief, teams with carr, a liaison with other natural resource professionals, to make the program a success.

The camp and WaYs are supported by National Science Foundation awards to Maine EPSCoR at the University of Maine.

In related news, the Penobscot Nation, with support from the Wabanaki Center and the USFS, recently received a grant totaling nearly $46,000 from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation for a Native habitat restoration project in Penobscot Experimental Forest in Bradley, Maine.

Wabanaki students will work hand-in-hand with members of the U.S. Forest Service, other scientists and cultural knowledge keepers to examine invasives in the forest

The 3,900-acre forest is a site for U.S. Forest Service research; it’s one of 80 experimental forests in the U.S. and the only one in the transitional zone between the Eastern Broadleaf and boreal forests.

During the 18 months of the grant, Wabanaki students will collect and analyze data on invasives, including Asiatic bittersweet and Norway maples.

The grant, says carr, will help develop future Native environmental leaders by providing participants with the ability to participate in cutting-edge research and learn from various professional and cultural mentors.

Contact: Beth Staples, 207.581.3777

UMaine Training 100 High School Students, Teachers to Help Solve Stormwater Problem

About 100 students and teachers from 12 high schools and local Native American communities around the state will gather at the University of Maine for a three-day program that focuses on creating innovative solutions to environmental problems related to stormwater management.

UMaine Stormwater Management Research Team (SMART) Institute participants will work with university faculty, undergraduates and graduate students; city water planners; and representatives from the Maine Department of Environmental Protection during the program that runs from Wednesday, June 24 through Friday, June 26.

Now in its second year, the SMART Institute aims to engage a diverse group of students and teachers in training for the implementation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in their schools while addressing an important environmental issue. Stormwater runoff is a pressing and expensive problem for most major cities, and the model of the program — STEM solution-focused with diverse citizen involvement — will have nationwide applicability and appeal, program organizers say.

The institute is supported by a more than $735,000 grant awarded by the National Science Foundation’s Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) Track III program that aims to empower female and minority high school students who are often underrepresented in STEM fields. The program also is supported by Emera Maine, Maine Community Foundation (Haskell-Stetson Trust) and IDEXX Corp.

Throughout the conference, students will take part in hands-on projects led by STEM professionals in areas such as engineering design, science, computer modeling and information technology to monitor and map water quality. Participants will tour UMaine labs and stormwater areas on campus, hear from guest speakers, and learn how to use wireless sensors to test water, as well as collect, enter and analyze data. Institute participants also will tour a lunar habitat on campus to see applications of wireless technology in other areas of research.

With the guidance of a representative from the Maine Department of Environmental Protection, students will begin their work as “live sensors” on the Stillwater River in Orono, collecting samples of insects that are indicators of water quality. Students also will collect water samples and retrieve data from wireless sensors built by UMaine students. New this year, students will prepare and be judged on a group presentation to “tell the story” of the Stillwater River, based on data they gather and analyze during the institute.  An awards ceremony will be held before students depart.

An opening session will be held from 8–9 a.m. Wednesday, June 24 in the Hill Auditorium of Barrows Hall. Paige Brown, a 2015 SMART Institute participant and Bangor High School junior, will deliver the keynote address, “Identifying and Remediating the Sources of Pollution in Impaired Bangor Streams.” Brown is the winner of the Maine Stockholm Junior Water Prize, a prestigious youth award for a water-related science project, and will represent Maine at this year’s national competition in Washington, D.C.

The SMART Institute is open to Maine students who are currently in 10th or 11th grade. Females and minorities are strongly encouraged to apply. The program also trains high school teachers to co-facilitate the academic-year internships of their participating students.

This year’s participating high schools include Bangor, Casco Bay and Deering in Portland, Edward Little in Auburn, Greely in Cumberland, Lewiston, Old Town, Orono, Portland, Shead in Eastport, Traip Academy in Kittery and Washington Academy in East Machias.

Glacial Geology

Aaron Putnam, a research associate with the University of Maine Climate Change Institute, is conducting glacial geology research in Mongolia with doctoral student Peter Strand.

Fieldwork will include mapping and collecting samples of moraines and glacial geomorphologic features around Khoton Nuur. Khoton Lake is at the foot of the Altai Mountains near the border of China.

Strand and Putnam, who is also associated with Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, are blogging about their experiences during the monthlong research trek, which is being done in collaboration with Mongolia University of Science and Technology, at umglacialgeology.tumblr.com.

A DeLorme inReach Satellite Communicator is broadcasting the team’s location every two hours. People interested in following the researchers can visit share.delorme.com/PeterStrand; the password is “glacier” to view the researchers’ location, send a message and follow their progress.

“The last glacial termination represents the last great global warming and the last time CO2 rose by a substantial amount before the industrial period. And yet the role of CO2 in causing the last great global warming is not certain,” Putnam and Strand blogged June 18.

They say this research could advance understanding of “the sensitivity of atmospheric temperature to CO2,” as well as increase knowledge about the processes that catapult the Earth out of an ice age.

When Strand and Putnam, who this fall will be a faculty member in the UMaine School of Earth and Climate Sciences, return to UMaine, they’ll process the collected samples and create a chronology that documents the reduction of glacier volume since the peak of the last ice age.

The research team also includes David Putnam, professor at University of Maine Presque Isle; Caleb Ward, a student at University of Maine at Presque Isle; Sarah Kramer, a graduate student at Medill School of Journalism; and Pagamsuren Amarsaikhan and Tsetsenbileg Bavuu from the Mongolian University of Science and Technology. Tanzhuo Liu, of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; and Hayley Walcott, a student at the University of Saint Andrews, will join the team in the field.

Contact: Beth Staples, 207.581.3777

Remembering UMaine’s First Female Entomologist

When Cassie Gibbs came to the University of Maine in 1971, a photograph hanging in an office in Deering Hall captivated her. She was studying it one day when Geddes Simpson, head of the Entomology Department, informed her that the woman was Edith Marion Patch, UMaine’s first female entomologist.

From that day forward, Gibbs — UMaine’s second female entomologist — made it her mission to learn all she could about Patch. Simpson fueled Gibbs’ fascination by regularly leaving on her desk letters, laboratory notebooks and children’s books authored by Patch. The collection grew steadily during Gibbs’ years as a noted aquatic entomologist, filling boxes and folders that she tucked away in her office.

It wasn’t until Gibbs retired in 1995 that she set out to document the life of Patch — a distinguished, nationally recognized aphid taxonomist, naturalist and educator — who became the first female president of the Entomological Society of America in 1930, during a time when women were a rare sight in the scientific community.

Twenty years later, Gibbs has published the biography, “Without Benefits from Insects: The Story of Edith M. Patch of the University of Maine,” a publication of the Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station.

Its publication coincides with the 150th anniversary of the University of Maine.

“Edith Patch is recognized as the first truly successful professional woman entomologist in the United States,” said Gibbs. “She was among the early scientists to write and speak of the threats to the environment from the widespread applications of chemical insecticides and to bring this to the public’s attention.”

Nearly 60 years after her death in 1954, Patch’s legacy is thriving, kept alive by her world-renowned scientific writing, a nonprofit organization named in her honor and a group of individuals dedicated to passing on Patch’s lessons to generations to come.

An extensive collection of archival records on Edith Patch, including some of the first memorabilia given to Gibbs, can be found in Fogler Library’s Special Collections at UMaine. The Patch homestead, once bursting with colorful gardens and buzzing insects, still sits on College Avenue on the Orono/Old Town line.

Patch’s faculty office was in Holmes Hall. A residence hall now on campus is named in her honor.

Bug enthusiasts may still see her extensive, internationally recognized insect collection, The Patch Collection, at the Maine State Museum in Augusta.

But the most recognizable essence of Patch can be found in her writing.

Patch had an incredible gift — the ability to communicate scientific ideas to all ages. She believed that nature was a child’s greatest mentor and that appreciation of the natural world did not belong solely to the scientist. She charmed nature lovers young and old with her enthusiasm for some of the world’s tiniest creatures, publishing many internationally recognized children’s publications, scientific papers and books throughout her lifetime.

“One of Patch’s greatest strengths was her understanding of the power of story. As a scientist, she herself was drawn to investigate nature’s ever-unfolding story,” said Mary Bird, member of the organization Friends of Edith Patch, dedicated to celebrating and continuing the legacy of Patch.  “As a teacher, she realized that it is through story that each of us can find our own ways to connect with the living world around us and to make meaning of what we find there. She skillfully engaged her audiences, youth and adult, lay and scientific, in exploring and learning from nature’s stories.”

Patch’s career as an entomologist emerged in July 1903 when Charles Woods, the director of the then Maine Agricultural Experiment Station (MAES), invited Patch to Orono. At the time, Patch was in her second year teaching high school English in Minnesota after being unable to secure a position in the field of entomology. Woods offered her an unpaid position teaching English and entomology, with the potential to establish a department of entomology the following year.

Patch packed her bags and moved to Maine.

Woods faced ridicule for his decision to invite Patch to UMaine, but his response was telling: “So far as the people on my staff are concerned, I am not at all concerned whether they are attired in trousers or skirts, just as long as they do the work.”

A year after her arrival at UMaine, Patch received a formal appointment as assistant professor of entomology.

Though being one of the only female scientists in a male-dominated profession often presented difficulties, Patch persevered with grace and patience. She had practice. Growing up, she was on a baseball team with boys and girls. She had attended a coeducational university — University of Minnesota — to earn a bachelor’s degree in English. She grew up walking side-by-side with males, so why would a professional position be any different?

Patch was expected to adhere to certain societal etiquettes, only some of which she followed. But her polite, often wordless deviation from the norms of her time helped pave the way for the success of women in science.

When Patch was discouraged from attending an after-dinner address during a meeting of the Entomological Society of America because the men would be smoking (women were not allowed to be in the presence of a man while he smoked during this time), she figured out where the meeting was, walked in and quietly took a seat. The smoke-filled room fell silent as the men looked side-to-side, eyebrows raised. Within seconds, every cigar and pipe in the room had been put out.

She was present at all subsequent meetings.

Jennifer Lund, a UMaine entomology graduate student, says she is grateful for the legacy Patch left behind. Lund received one of the 2015 Edith Patch Award, which honors outstanding undergraduate and graduate women for distinguished work in the fields of science, agriculture, engineering and environmental education.

“I am so very honored to win an award that is named after such a phenomenal female entomologist and scientist,” said Lund.  “I often think about how my research here has been influenced by all the entomologists that have come before me but especially Edith Patch who paved the way for female entomologists at the University of Maine so early in the university’s history.”

Patch specialized in aphids — small sap-sucking insects commonly known as plant lice. Their complex life cycles, multiple host plants and ability to transmit pathogens made the group particularly difficult to study.

Her fascination for aphids began when she was an undergraduate student in Minnesota, under the direction of Oscar Oestlund. Researchers from Belgium to Brazil began seeking her counsel on how to manage aphid populations that had been infesting their agricultural crops. Before long, she had become the world’s aphid specialist. Today, her publication, The Food-Plant Catalogue of Aphids of the World, is still referenced as the most comprehensive record of aphids and their host plants.

Before completing her master’s degree in entomology at the University of Maine in June 1910, Patch had already published seven papers on aphids and related species, five of which appeared in national journals. The seventh became her dissertation for her Ph.D. in entomology from Cornell University in 1911. Patch’s research at Cornell focused on the evolutionary origins of the wing veins of aphids and their close relatives the psyllids, aleuronids, and coccids.

During her time at Cornell, Patch collaborated with John Henry Comstock, a distinguished researcher and author of her beloved first insect book, the Manual for the Study of Insects. She purchased the manual during her final year of high school after winning a $25 prize for an essay she wrote dedicated to the monarch butterfly.

Patch became lifelong friends with Comstock and his wife Anna Botsford Comstock, an illustrator and author of natural history books for young people.

After establishing her career as an entomologist, Patch purchased her home, which she named Braeside. The name — derived from the Scottish word brae — translates to bank, referring to its location on the edge of the Stillwater River. Built in the 1840s, the house was sited on a 50-acre plot of land surrounded by exquisite wild gardens bustling with insect life. Here, she spent much of her free time observing and writing about the natural world.

Her home was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. For the past 15 years, the Friends of Edith Patch organization has raised nearly $200,000 for the rehabilitation of Braeside. Once restored, the facility will house the Edith Patch Environmental Observatory, which will feature a museum, educational resource center, and facilities for environmental research, education and policy. The property surrounding the historic home will mirror the gardens depicted in many of Patch’s writing for children.

Patch published her first children’s book — Dame Bug and Her Babies — in 1913. The book, a collection of 18 stories about insect mothers and their offspring, sold for 75 cents, plus postage. This marked the beginning of her lifelong mission to write biologically accurate stories that invoked curiosity in young readers. Many publications followed, including Little Gateways to Science, which told the story of 12 birds and the inauspicious effects human activity can have on the natural world.

“With academic specializations in both English and entomology, she thoroughly understood that the work carried out in lab and field would be meaningless if it could not be connected in real and meaningful ways to those whom it was designed to serve,” said Bird. “She used her skills as both a scientist and a writer to create pathways into understanding and appreciation of science and the world it seeks to explore and explain.”

Dedicated to educating the next generation of scientists, Patch’s expertise often took her away from Orono. She traveled all over the country giving talks about her work, and, in 1927 took a six-month research trip to the Rothamsted Experimental Station in Harpenden, England to study the migratory aphid, Myzus pseudosolani, which had become a concern in New England.

Patch was not only a distinguished scientist and world-renowned author, but also one of the first environmentalists of her time. In a compelling speech given in 1936 for the Maine Agricultural News Radio Program titled “Aphids, Aphids, Everywhere,” Patch explained the dangers of excessive use of insecticides. Using the life cycle of the aphid as an example, she pointed out that there are many natural factors controlling aphid population and that it is not necessary to rely on insecticides to keep the insect populations in balance.

This speech was given 26 years before the dangers of insecticides were echoed in Rachel Carson’s famous book, Silent Spring, which is given considerable credit for igniting the environmental movement in the 1960s.

“Even as a girl of 7 in Minnesota, she (Patch) was a lover of all natural things, and she remained a naturalist until the day she died. The naturalist tradition is a long one. It always has included a love of — and appreciation for — the beauty of nature,” said James Slater, who delivered the Entomological Society of America’s 1996 founders’ memorial and lecture honoring Patch.

Patch’s environmental concerns resonated again during her address at the Entomological Society of America’s annual meeting in Atlantic City, New Jersey. She pleaded to the audience — filled with scientists like herself — to look closer at the adverse effects chemical insecticides can have on non-targeted insect populations and their surrounding ecosystems. Her statement — “the welfare of humankind depends on the protection of insects” — sounded the alarm and made newspaper headlines nationwide. This speech was later published as a bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society in 1938, titled “Without Benefit of Insects,” and became one of her most-noted publications.

After a long successful career, Patch retired in July 1937 after 34 years at UMaine. She was named entomologist emeritus and was awarded an honorary doctorate of science degree at UMaine’s 66th annual commencement. She was flooded with correspondence from researchers and friends thanking her for her many contributions to science. At the time of her retirement, she had published 15 children’s books and 78 scientific articles.

Though she no longer held a formal position at the university, Patch remained active in the scientific community. In a speech addressed to the Garden Club Federation in 1939 titled, “Our insect friends,” she continued to stress the importance of insects as pollinators and the benefits they have to our agricultural system.

“We have a lot we can learn from Patch. She wanted children to be loving towards the natural world, not destroying it or invading it in any way,” said Nancy MacKnight, member of the Friends of Edith Patch organization.  “She taught us that if you want to do something, you have to persevere. Patch tried to get a job in entomology, and she couldn’t. Maine was the only place that offered her anything connected to entomology, and it was unpaid for a year. It took a lot of courage to enter a man’s field at that time. We owe a lot to Edith Patch.”

Contact: Amanda Clark, 207.581.3721

Steneck Delivers Coral Reef Address on World Oceans Day in Dominican Republic

University of Maine marine scientist Bob Steneck encouraged Dominican Republic officials and stakeholders to preserve and improve coral reefs — what he calls the tropical rainforests of the sea — in a keynote address on World Oceans Day, in Santo Domingo.

“They contain 25 percent of all species on Earth. However, they are also among the world’s most endangered ecosystems and, as such, the biodiversity, breakwater function, food resources and ecotourism value they provide for people are all at risk,” says Steneck.

“They are threatened worldwide but this is especially obvious in the Dominican Republic, where competing activities, such as coastal development and fishing pressure, have taken their toll.”

Steneck encouraged the Dominican Republic government and nongovernment organizations to work together to preserve reefs that are healthy and continue efforts to improve those that are degraded. His recommendations included banning the harvesting of parrotfish and investing in enforcement.

Although coral reefs suffer from global climate change and ocean acidification, Steneck says there are remarkable bright spots.

While quantifying corals, seaweed and sponges in transects in March, Steneck says he and fellow researchers found a wide range of reef conditions, from the bright spots — some of the best coral in all of the Caribbean — to some of the most degraded.

Repeatedly, it appeared the presence of healthy fish populations, especially parrotfish, corresponded with the healthiest coral reefs, says Steneck, a professor of oceanography, marine biology and marine policy based at the Darling Marine Center in Walpole, Maine.

“The Dominican Republic is a remarkably diverse country,” says Steneck. “However, its greatest diversity may lie underwater and out of sight of most people.”

The vibrant reefs, he says, were within sight of the border with Haiti, while reefs adjacent to Punta Cana, the heavily populated easternmost tip of the Dominican Republic, were the most degraded.

About 400 people attended Steneck’s keynote at the conference, which was sponsored by Propagas Foundation. Creative lighting and decorations made the conference room appear to be underwater, he says.

Several media outlets, including El Dia, covered Steneck’s speech (eldia.com.do/experto-revela-deterioro-de-arrecifes). Steneck also was a guest on two radio shows before returning to Maine.

Contact: Beth Staples, 207.581.3777

UMaine Researchers Strive to Increase Bee Populations in Maine

A group of University of Maine researchers is working to enhance native and honey bee populations by increasing beneficial pollinator flowers across Maine’s landscape. This is not a new idea — what is new is their choice of research location. Some might describe one of their sites as trashy, but the researchers think it’s just what they need.

The researchers — Alison Dibble, Lois Stack, Megan Leech, and Frank Drummond — are planting pollinator demonstration gardens at the inactive Pine Tree Landfill in Hampden and at G.W. Allen’s Blueberry farm located in Orland. Both plots will be used to educate farmers and community members about strategies that they can adopt to help keep bee communities thriving in the state.

“This project is important because one of the many hypothesized stressors that have been implicated in bee decline, including honey bees and native bees, is not having enough floral resources, which provides the pollen and nectar essential for bees,” says Drummond, professor of insect ecology.

Funded by the Natural Resource Conservation Service, the two-year project’s objective is to identify plantings — annuals, herbaceous perennials and woody shrubs — that are most beneficial to bees across Maine’s terrain, which is dominated by forest ecosystems that are not particularly conducive to bee life.

By enhancing habitats to fit the needs of pollinators, the researchers are giving back to the tiny buzzing insects that provide our agricultural systems with the crucial service of pollination.

As bees forage for food, they pollinate flowering plants by depositing pollen on the flower’s stigma, the receptive part of the plant’s female reproductive organ. The pollen will then germinate and fertilize the flower to produce fruits and seeds.

Conservation biologists in Maine, as well as worldwide, have raised concerns about declines in bee abundance and species diversity. Due to conversion of landscape for residential and commercial uses, natural bee habitats are being eliminated, which could have serious implications to various agricultural crops in Maine, such as blueberries.

According to David Yarbrough, professor of horticulture and a wild blueberry specialist for University of Maine Cooperative Extension, last year’s harvest of wild blueberry crops in Maine brought in a $250 million monetary return.  In 2014, Maine produced and harvested more than 104 million pounds of blueberries made possible, in part, by the free services bees provide.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, bees provide pollination to 80 percent of all flowering plants and 75 percent of fruits, nuts and vegetables grown in the U.S. About 25,000 species of bees are known throughout the world and Maine is home to more than 270 species of native bees.

During the demonstrations, researchers and educators will discuss plants that are best utilized by bees and will stress the need to avoid flowers and shrubs treated with systemic insecticides because they can be detrimental to bees, says Drummond.

“It’s not just about planting flowers: it’s about planting flowers that are safe for the bees,” he says. Both sites will help researchers, farmers and educators better understand how these plots should be managed in order to be successful both agriculturally and ecologically. The first demonstration date has not been set, but the researchers are aiming to hold one in mid-August.

Pine Tree landfill, the first site for the demonstration, is managed by Casella Waste Services, which owns more than 400 landfills in the Northeast. If all goes well, the company hopes to host more pollinator gardens on their landfills, transforming unused land into flower-filled paradises for bees.

“I think the landfill is a great location for this project because it’s a piece of land that is not currently being used. Right now they use the methane that comes from the landfill to produce energy. So if we can use the same land for something else that is a good cause, it’s a win-win,” says Leech, a graduate student working with Drummond.

Leech’s master’s thesis is focused on flower nutrition, specifically whether bees visit flowers with higher nutritional value more frequently. She’s also looking at other floral characteristics that would impact flower nutrition such as nectar and pollen. The idea for her thesis sprouted while working on Dibble’s bee module project, when she observed bees showing a preference for some flowers over others, and wondered if it was related to nutrition.

The bee module — a five-year project started in 2012 — is aimed at determining which plants elicit the most bee visitations in order to create a baseline of what plants should be selected for the pollinator demonstration sites. In order to collect the data, Dibble setup 36 plots within 100-foot-by-100-foot areas on three Maine blueberry fields and at the University of Maine Rogers farm. By placing plots side-by-side, researchers were able to collect observations of bee visitations on a variety of different planting selections, which will help to better inform their recommendations to farmers.

The data they collect, which will focus on the success of flowering plant germination and bee visitation preferences, will be looked at over the next two years to determine if the increase in floral resources was beneficial to the bee populations.

Promoting the health of bee populations is relatively inexpensive in terms of the alternative, which is trying to pollinate plants without bees. If farmers planted pollinator plots next to their agricultural crops, they could decrease rental costs for honeybees, which are usually imported by farmers during the planting season, says Drummond.

Drummond hopes the project will encourage nonfarmers to invest in pollinator plantings for municipalities, private homes and state agencies, so — on a landscape level — bee numbers can increase.

“In the past, we’ve mostly been focusing on the farmers. But what makes this project more unique is that we are trying to provide outreach for the nonfarmers who can also have an impact on improving bee communities on the landscape,” says Drummond.

Contact: Amanda Clark, 207.581.3721

Study Shows Bluefin Tuna Going Hungry Due to Size of Prey, not Abundance

Bluefin tuna are going hungry in a sea full of fish because their foraging habits are most efficient with larger — not necessarily more abundant — prey, according to a study led by a University of Maine marine scientist.

Walter Golet, assistant research professor in the School of Marine Sciences and the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, led a research team that involved marine scientists from five institutions, including Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst and Simon Fraser University.

How can bluefin tuna go hungry in a sea full of fish?

In a paper in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series titled “The paradox of the pelagics: why bluefin tuna can go hungry in a sea of plenty,” the seven authors outlined how the overall condition (fat content) of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Maine declined despite an abundance of Clupea harengus, Atlantic herring — their preferred prey.

The Gulf of Maine is an important foraging ground for bluefin tuna, which spend up to six months there consuming high-energy prey such as the herring and in doing so accumulate as much as 200 pounds in fat. Energy acquired in the Gulf of Maine is vital to support bluefin tuna migration and reproduction.

The population of Atlantic herring has increased over the past two decades suggesting that foraging conditions should have been favorable for bluefin tuna. A decline in bluefin tuna condition despite abundant prey resources was puzzling, so the researchers tested hypotheses related to the energetic payoff of eating herring of different sizes, comparing this across different regions of the northwest Atlantic. Researchers had expected to find that due to the high abundance of herring in the Gulf of Maine, foraging would have been favorable for the bluefin tuna, thereby increasing their lipid stores and overall body condition. Their results suggest bluefin tuna are more sensitive to the size of their prey rather than prey abundance (i.e., for bluefin, bigger prey is better than smaller prey).

Researchers identified a correlation between bluefin tuna body condition, the relative abundance of large Atlantic herring and the energetic payoff resulting from consuming different sizes of herring. The correlation is consistent with the optimal foraging theory, a model used to predict how an animal behaves when it’s searching for food.

These correlations could explain why the condition of bluefin tuna suffers even when prey is abundant. According to the researchers, this may also explain a shift in distribution of bluefin tuna to offshore banks and locations further north on the northwest Atlantic shelf where herring (and their corresponding energetic payoff) are larger.

Management strategies for small pelagic fish, including sardines, herrings and anchovies, have the potential to alter food web dynamics and energy flow through changes in the size and abundance of these species. Changes in these fish stocks impact marine mammals and other large warm-bodied fish (like bluefin tuna) whose physiology is geared toward high energetic returns while foraging.

The researchers utilized the extensive data collected from the Maine Department of Marine Resources, the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans and the National Marine Fisheries Service.

Contact: Amanda Clark, 207.581.3721


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