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Conservation Planning and Citizen Science


Vernal Pool Mitigation

Conservation Planning and Citizen Science

Baldwin, R., A.J.K. Calhoun, and P.G. deMaynadier.  2006.  Conservation planning for amphibian species with complex habitat requirements: a case study using movements and habitat selection of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica).  Journal of Herpetology 40:443-454.

Baldwin, R, and P.G. deMaynadier.  2009.  Assessing threats to pool-breeding amphibian habitat in an urbanizing landscape.  Biological Conservation. 142:1628-1638.

Beaudry, F., P.G. deMaynadier, and M.L. Hunter Jr.  2008.  Identifying road mortality threat at multiple spatial scales for semi-aquatic turtles.  Biological Conservation 141: 2550-2563.

Calhoun, A.J.K. and P. deMaynadier.  2003. Forestry habitat management guidelines for vernal pool wildlife in Maine.  Wildlife Conservation Society Technical Paper #6.  Rye, New York. 

Calhoun, A.J.K., N. Miller, and M. W. Klemens. 2005. Conservation strategies for pool-breeding amphibians in human-dominated landscapes. Wetlands Ecology and Management 13:291-304.

Calhoun, A.J.K. and P. Reilly.  2008.  Conserving vernal pool habitat through community based conservation.  In:  Calhoun, A.J.K. and P.G. deMaynadier (eds).  Science and conservation of vernal pools in northeastern North America.  CRC Press.

Freeman, R.C., K.P. Bell, A.J.K. Calhoun, and C.S. Loftin.  2012.  Incorporating economic models into vernal pool conservation planning: Using local land use regulations to enhance state regulations. Wetlands 32:509-520.

Gibbs, J.P.  2000.  Wetland loss and biodiversity conservation.  Conservation Biology 14:314-317.

Hart, D.D. and A.J.K. Calhoun. 2010. Rethinking the role of ecological research in the sustainable management of freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 55:258-269.

Jansujwica, J., A. Calhoun, J. Leahy, and R. Lilieholm. 2013. Using mixed methods to develop a frame-based private landowner typology. Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal. 26:8, 945-961, DOI: 10.1080/08941920.2012.729294.

McGreavy, B., T. Webler, and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2012.  Local decision maker attitudes to vernal pool conservation in Maine.  Journal of Environmental Management 95:1-8.

Morgan, D.E., and A.J.K. Calhoun. 2011. The Maine Municipal Guide to Mapping and Conserving Vernal Pools. University of Maine, Sustainability Solutions Initiative, Orono, ME.

Oscarson, D. and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2007.  Developing vernal pool conservation plans at the local level using citizen scientists.  Wetlands 27:80-95.

Patrick, D., M.L. Hunter, and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2006.  Effects of experimental forestry treatments on a Maine Amphibian Community.  Forest Ecology and Management 234:323-332.

Veysey, J.S., K.J. Babbitt, and A. Cooper.  2009.  An experimental assessment of buffer width: Implications for salamander migratory behavior.   Biological Conservation. 142:2227-2239.


Baldwin, R, A.J.K. Calhoun, and P.G. deMaynadier.  2006.  The significance of hydroperiod and stand maturity for pool-breeding amphibians in forested landscapes.  Canadian Journal of Zoology. 84:1604-1615.

Beaudry, F., P.G. deMaynadier, and M.L. Hunter Jr.  2009.  Seasonally dynamic habitat use by spotted and blandings turtles in Maine.   Journal of Herpetology. 43:636-645.

Belasen, A., E. Burkett, A. Injaian, K. Li, D. Allen, and I. Perfecto. 2013. Effect of Sub-Canopy on Habitat Selection in the Blue-spotted Salamander (Ambystoma laterale-jeffersonianum unisexual complex). Copeia. 2013(2):254-261.

Faccio, S. D. 2003. Postbreeding emigration and habitat use by Jefferson and spotted salamanders in Vermont. Journal of Herpetology 39:479-489.

Gahl, M.K., and A.J.K. Calhoun. 2010. The role of multiple stressors in ranavirus-caused amphibian mortalities in Acadia National Park wetlands. Canadian Journal of Zoology 88:108-121.

Joyal, L.A., M. McCollough, and M.L. Hunter Jr.  2001.  Landscape ecology approaches to wetland species conservation: a case study for two turtle species in southern Maine.  Conservation Biology 15:1755-1762.

Paton, P.W. and W.B. Crouch III.  2002.  Using the phenology of pond-breeding amphibians to develop conservation strategies.  Conservation Biology 16:194-204.

Patrick, D.A., A.J.K Calhoun, and M.L. Hunter.  2008.  The importance of understanding spatial population structure when evaluating the effects of silviculture on spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).  Biological Conservation 141:807-814.

Popescu, D., M.L. Hunter, D. Patrick, and A.J.K. Calhoun. 2012. Predicting the response of amphibian communities to disturbance across multiple temporal and spatial scales.  Forest Ecology and Management 270:163-174.

Windmiller, B., R.N. Homan, J.V. Regosin, L.A. Willitts, D.L. Wells, and J.M. Reed.  2008.  Breeding amphibian population declines following loss of upland forest habitat around vernal pools in Massachusetts, USA.  In: Mitchell, R.E., J. Brown, and B. Bartholomew (eds).  Urban Herpetology.  Herpetological Conservation.

Vernal Pool Mitigation

Calhoun, A.J.K. and M.W. Klemens.  2002.  Best development practices for pool-breeding amphibians in commercial and residential developments.  Wildlife Conservation Society Technical Paper #5.  Rye, New York. 

Calhoun, A.J.K., T. Walls, M. McCollough, and S. Stockwell.  2003.  Developing conservation strategies for vernal pools: a Maine case study.  Wetlands 23:70-81.

Korfel, C.A., W. J. Mitsch, T.E. Hetherington, and J.J. Mack. 2010. Hydrology, Physiochemistry, and Amphibians in Natural and Created Vernal Pool Wetlands. Restoration Ecology 16:843–854.

Vasconcelos, D. and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2004.  Movement patterns of adult and juvenile wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in three restored vernal pools.  Journal of Herpetology 38:551-561.

Windmiller, B. and A.J.K. Calhoun.  2008.  Conserving vernal pool wildlife in urbanizing landscapes.  In: Calhoun, AJK and P.G. deMaynadier (eds).  Science and conservation of vernal pools in northeastern North America.  CRC Press.

Recommended Resources

Maine Department of Environmental Protection, Chapter 335 - Significant Wildlife Habitat

Rattlers, Peepers, and Snappers-Educational Video

Calhoun book
Calhoun, A.J.K. and P.G. deMaynadier.  2008. Science and Conservation of Vernal Pools in Northeastern North America.  CRC Press, Boca Rotan, FL, USA.


Colburn, E. A. 2004. Vernal Pools: Natural History and Conservation. McDonald & Woodward, Blacksburg, VA.


Hunter, M.L. Jr., A.J.K Calhoun, M. McCollough, (eds.) 1999. 
Maine Amphibians and Reptiles.  University of Maine Press, Orono, ME. 252 pp.

field guide
Kenney, L. P., and Burne, M. R. 2000. A Field Guide to the Animals of Vernal Pools. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife, Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program. Westborough, MA.